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Social Statistics

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In general, when examining the percentage differences in a bivariate table, the larger the percentage difference, the _____ the relationship between two variables.
?
In a bivariate table, a marginal refers to:
?
One you have calculated the appropriate percentages for a bivariate table, one then examines the _____ of these quantities across the categories of the independent variable.
difference
When calculating percentages for a bivariate table, it is best to do so:
Within each category of the independent variable
A control variable that is situated "between" the independent and dependent variables is referred to as:
An intervening variable
In a cross tabulation, the intersection of a row and column is referred to as:
A cell
When it is not apparent which variable is the independent variable or dependent variable, it is common for researchers to:
Calculate both the row and column percentages
A relationship in which both the independent and dependent variables are influenced by a causally prior control variable such the original relationship is "explained away" by the control variable is referred to as:
spuriousness
An additional variable considered in a bivariate relationship, usually with the aim of controlling for the effects of this variable, is referred to as an:
control variable
Which types of variables are perhaps the most likely to be ambiguous with respect to which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable.
?
The chi-square test is particularly susceptible to the limits of _____.
sample size
The particular shape of a chi-square distribution depends on:
The number of degrees of freedom
Chi-square is useful test for determining _____ significance but not for determining _____ significance.
statistical; substantive
What is the null hypothesis for a chi-square test?
two variables are unrelated in the population
The chi-square test requires the following assumption:
random sampling
The obtained chi-square statistic summarizes the _____ the observed and expected frequencies.
differences between
_____ frequencies are those frequencies that are expected in a bivariate table if the two variables were statistically independent.
expected
In a bivariate table, two variables are said to be statistically independent when, within each category of the independent variable, the percentage distributions of the dependent variable are:
equal
Chi-square distributions are usually _____ skewed.
positively
The chi-square sampling distribution is actually:
a family of distributions
A single summarizing number that reflects the strength of a relationship, indicates the usefulness of predicting the dependent variable from the independent variable, and often shows the direction of a relationship is referred to as _____.
measure of association
Paired observations tied on the independent variable are used to calculate the value of the following measure of association:
Tau-b
Paired observations that show a positive association - that is, where the member of the pair ranked higher on the independent variable is also ranked higher on the dependent variable - are referred to as:
same order pairs
An asymmetrical measure of association ranging from 0 to +1 and used to determine the relationship between nominal variables is:
lambda
PRE measures range from 0 to ±1. A value of +1 would indicate a:
strong positive relationship
Gamma is a measure of association appropriate with _____ variables.
ordinal
Which of the following values of a PRE measure is considered the weakest:
0
One of the key features of gamma is its emphasis on _____ observations.
paired
The general concept which describes the comparison of errors made in predicting the dependent variable while ignoring the independent variable with errors made when making predictions that use information about the independent variable is known as:
proportional reduction of error
Kendall's tau-b can vary from:
-1 to 1
The coefficient of determination is symbolized by:
r2
Consider the following linear regression prediction equation: Y = 12 + -1x. What is the direction of the relationship between these two variables?
The relationship between the observed X and the predicted Y is negative
The least squares (best fitting) line is one wherein:
The change in Y with a unit change in X
How many independent variables are considered by a bivariate linear regression equation?
answer is not 2
A residual is defined as:
The difference between the observed Y and the predicted Y
What is the slope of the linear regression prediction equation if a person with 12 years of schooling earns $31,000 per year and a person with 13 years of schooling earns $32,500 per year?
1,500
What is the residual sum of squares?
The sum of the squared deviations from the regression line
The correlation coefficient is symbolized by:
r
What is the total sum of squares?
The sum of the squared deviations from the mean
ANOVA is best suited for comparing the means of _____ group(s) at once.
more than two
Taken together, the between group sum of squares and the within group sum of squares compose the _____.
total sum of squares
The amount of variation in the dependent variable that can be attributed to or explained by the independent variable is termed the _____.
between group sum of squares
ANOVA allows us to determine whether the variance between samples is larger than the variance within samples. If the variance is larger between samples, what can we say about the group differences we are interested in analyzing?
The dependent variables varies significantly across groups
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of ANOVA?
The comparison groups are dependent
To determine whether the differences between group means are statistically significant, ANOVA examines the differences _____.
between and within groups
Why is the F statistic also called an F ratio?
It is the ratio of the mean square between to the mean square within
Which of the following quantities is not used by or does not result from the use of ANOVA?
the median
After calculating the between group sum of squares and the within group sum of squares, the next step is to calculate the mean square between and the mean square within. This is achieved by:
Dividing each sum of squares by its respective degrees of freedom
When using ANOVA procedures, one is interested at the outset in calculating what is known as the between group sum of squares. What does this quantity measure?
The sum of the squared deviations between each group mean and the mean across all groups
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