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57 terms

Nursing Exam 3

Ch 6: Nutrition; Ch 16: Breasts; Ch 17: Abdomen; Ch 18: Female Genitalia; Ch 19: Male Genitalia; Ch 20: Anus, Rectum, & Prostate; Ch 21: Musculoskeletal
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Where are the skene glands located?
2 o'clock and 11 o'clock
What would discharge of the skene glands most likely indicate?
an infection
what do the skene glands do?
secrete mucus
where are the bartholin glands located?
5 and 7 o'clock
what do you check the bartholin glands for?
swelling, masses tenderness, warmth, discharge
A non tender mass in the bartholin glands is an indicator of a bartholin cyst, which is the result of what?
chronic inflammation
describe the labia majora
may be gaping or closed and may appear dry or moist. symmetrical
A unilateral labia majora may indicate what?
bartholin gland infection
scratching of the labia majora would be obvious because of what?
excoriation, rashes, or lesions
describe the labia minora
can be symmetrical or assymmetrical and the inner surface should be moist and dark pink
what could inflammation, irritation, excoriation or caking of discharge in the tissues fold of the labia minora indicate?
vaginal infection or poor hygiene
Discoloration or tenderness of the labia minora could indicate
traumatic bruising
Ulcers or vesicles in the labia minora could be a sign of ?
STI
Describe the perineum
smooth and thick. Unless pregnant.
Describe what happens to the perineum after a woman has had children
it would thin after each birth and it could be ridged
what should you note when looking at the perineum?
inflammation, tenderness, fistulas, lesions or growths
what is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening in the muscle wall called?
hernia
Describe a bladder prolapse
occurs when the supportive tissue between a woman's bladder and vaginal wall weakens and stretches allowing the bladder to bulge into the vagina
Describe cystocele
the hernial protrusion of the urinary bladder through the anterior wall of the vagina, sometimes even exciting the introitus and can be seen or felt when the woman bears down
describe rectocele
the protrusion of part of the rectum through the posterior vaginal wall
What is it called when the uterus descends into or beyond the vaginal wall?
uterine prolapse
uterine prolapse is the result of what?
weakiening of the supporting structures of the pelvic floor often occuring with a cystocele or rectocele
what is the lower end of the uterus called?
cervix
what color should the cervix be?
pink.
what would a bluish cervix indicate?
increased varicosity, pregnancy
what would a pale cervix indicate?
anemia
a cervix pointing anteriorly would indicate what type of uterus?
retroverted
a cervix pointing posteriorly would indicate what type of uterus?
anteverted
a horizontal position of the cervix would indicate what position of the uterus?
midposition
where should the cervix be located?
midline
deviations of the cervix to either side might indicate what?
pelvic mass, uterine adhesion or pregnancy
the cervix should protrude ___-__ cm into the vagina and anything more can indicaate a pelvic or uterine mass
1-3cm
what should any cervical discharge smell like?
odorless
How does the os of a multiparous woman vary from a nulliparous woman
a multiparous woman would have a slit-like os and a nulliparous woman should have a circular os
define multiparous woman
a woman who has had children
define a nulliparous woman
a woman who has no children
What is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs called?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID could be a serious complication of some what?
STI
what causes PID
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
What are the symptoms of PID?
painful urination, painful intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding and pain in the upper right abdomen
what hormones are necessary and responsible for the uterine enlargement during the first trimester
estrogen and progesterone
After the 3rd month, uterine enlargement is due to ?
mechanical pressure of the growing fetus
What are the risk factors for penile cancer?
lack of circumcision with failure to maintain good hygiene, phimosis, HPV, age, smoking
what are the risk factors for testicular cancer?
undescended testicles, history of testicular cancer, abnormal developments, Klinefelter syndrome, between ages 20-54, white
what are the risk factors for prostate cancer?
older than 50, black, family history of prostate cancer, diet high in animal fat, physical inactivity, high level of exposure to androgens
what are the risk factors for colorectal cancer?
older than 50, family hx of colorectal cancer, intestinal polyps, chronic inflammatory bowel disease, Gardner syndrome, personal hx or ovarian, endometrial or breast cancer, diet high in beef and animal fats, low in fiber, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity. alcohol intake
what are the risk factors for anal cancer?
older than 90. infection with HIP, multiple sex partners, having receptive anal intercourse, frequent anal redness, swelling and soreness, anal fissure. smoking/ immunosuppresion
What are the risks for breast cancer
increases with age, female, personal or family history, previous breast biopsies, white women, previous breast radiation, menarche before 12 and menopause after 35. dense or fatty breast tissue, nulliparity, or first child after age 30, HT, alcohol, obesity, lack of physical activity
what are the risks for cervical cancer
lack of screening, HPV, sexual intercourse before 16 and multiple sex partners, diet low in fruit and veggies, higher in blacks and Hispanics, mothers who took DES, oral contraceptives,
What are ovarian cancer risks?
early menarche, infertility, nulliparity, number of menstrual cycles in lifetime, use of fertility drugs, personal history, BRCA1 or 2, white women, HRT, bad diet
What age does the american cancer society suggest that women begin breast self-examinations?
20
When is a genitalia self-exam highly suggested?
anyone with risks of STIs
what does the liquid based cytology test for?
HPV, GC, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis
What does the DNA probe tube test for?
GC and chlamydia
what does the wet prep test for?
bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis
what does the KOH prep test for?
candidiasis, yeast cells
what does the whiff test test for?
fishy odor which would equal bacterial vaginosis