Upgrade to remove ads
415 Community Focused Review
Terms in this set (52)
Airborne infectious disease
Tuberculosis (pulmonary or laryngeal)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
(toxins produced through bacterial growth, chemical contamination, or disease‑producing substances)
Food intoxication examples
Staphylococcus aureus & Clostridium botulinum
Waterborne occurs how?
fecal contamination of water
Examples of waterborne illnesses
via a carrier like a mosquito or tick
Examples of Vector borne
West Nile virus
Rocky Mountain spotted fever
Direct Contact examples
sexually transmitted infections: HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, human papilloma virus (HPV), genital herpes, hepatitis B, C, D; Infectious mononucleosis; Enterobiasis (pinworms); Impetigo; Lice, scabies
transmission of infectious agent from infected host to susceptible host via direct contact
Portals of Entry
Portals of Exit
Saliva and emesis
Skin lesion exudates
Protection due to the immunity of most community members making exposure unlikely
Natural defense mechanisms of the body to resist specific antigens or toxins
Develops through actual exposure to the infectious agent (active or passive)
Production of antibodies by the body in response to infection or immunization with a specific antigen
Transfer of antibodies to the host either transplacentally from mother to newborn, or through transfusions of immunoglobulins, plasma proteins, orantitoxins
Prevent the occurrence of infectious disease.
Educate the public regarding the need for immunizations, and federal and state immunization programs.
Counsel clients traveling to other countries about protection from infectious diseases. Refer clients to the health department for information about mandatory immunizations.
Educate the public regarding prevention of disease and ways to eliminate risk factors for exposure, such as hand hygiene, universal precautions, proper food handling and storage, use of insecticides, and use of condoms.
Increase early detection through screening and case finding.
●Refer suspected cases of communicable disease for diagnostic confirmation and epidemiologic reporting.
●Provide post‑exposure prophylaxis (hepatitis A, rabies).
●Quarantine clients when necessary.
●Use partner notification and contact tracing to identify and screen individuals who have been exposed to a communicable disease
Decrease complications and disabilities due to infectious diseases through treatment and rehabilitation.
●Monitor treatment compliance, including directly observed therapy (DOT).
●Identify and link clients to needed community resources.
Bioterrorism: Category A Biological Agents
The highest priority agents, posing a risk to national security because they are easily transmitted and have high mortality rates.
●Examples include smallpox, botulism, anthrax, tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers (e.g., Ebola), and plague.
Bioterrorism Category B Biological Agents
The second‑highest priority because they are moderately easy to disseminate, and have high morbidity rates and low mortality rates.
Examples include typhus fever, ricin toxin, diarrheagenic E. coli, and West Nile virus
Bioterrorism: Category C Biological Agents
The third‑highest priority, comprising emerging pathogens that can be engineered for mass dissemination because they are easy to produce, and/or have a potential for high morbidity and mortality rates.
●Examples include hantavirus, influenza virus, tuberculosis, and rabies virus
Inhalational Anthrax Manifestations
Fever and chills
Inhalation Anthrax Prevention
Anthrax vaccine for those at high‑risk for exposure to anthrax.
Ciprofloxacin and doxycycline are recommended by the CDC for prevention of anthrax following exposure.
Inhalation Anthrax Treatment
Antitoxin and IV antibiotics are administered if manifestations of an anthrax infection are present
Double or blurred vision
●Progressive muscle weakness
Airway management with possible mechanical ventilation●Administration of antitoxin
Is there Botulism Prevention?
Elimination of Botulism Toxin
Induction of vomiting, enemas, surgical excision of wound tissue
Head and body aches
Rash that begins on face and tongue; quickly spreads to the trunk, arms, and legs, then hands and feet; then turns to pus‑filled lesions
Vaccine for those at high‑risk (provides 10 years of immunity); can vaccinate within 3 days of exposure
Contact and airborne precautions
Is there a treatment for smallpox?
No cure; supportive care:Hydration, pain medication, antipyretics, antibiotics for secondary infections
●Joint and muscle aches
●Fatigue and weakness
●Vomiting and diarrhea
No approved vaccine available
●Don impermeable gown or coverall; disposable gloves (two pairs), boot covers, and apron; and N95 mask. Recommend a second caregiver supervise doffing. Maintain droplet isolation precautions.
Supportive care IV fluids, dialysis, airway management, psychological counseling.●Minimize invasive procedures.
Sudden fever, chills, headache, diarrhea, muscle aches, joint pain, dry cough, progressive weakness
●If airborne, life‑threatening pneumonia and systemic infection
Vaccine under review by the Food and Drug Administration but not currently available
Streptomycin or gentamicin is the antibiotic of choice.
●In mass causality, use doxycycline or ciprofloxacin
Determinants of Health
factors that influence the client's health. These can include nutrition, stress, education, the environment, finances, and social status/stigma (prejudice).
(mortality rates, disease prevalence, levels of physical activity, obesity, tobacco or other substance use) describe the health status of a community and serve as targets for the improvement of a community's health
Public Health Nursing
population‑focused, and involves a combination of nursing knowledge along with social and public health sciences. The goal of public health nursing is promoting health and preventing disease.
the study of health‑related trends in populations for the purposes of disease prevention, health maintenance, and health protection.
number of new cases in the population at a specific time ÷ population total x 1,000 = _____ per 1,000
number of existing cases in the population at a specific time ÷ population total x 1,000 = _____ per 1,000
number of people exposed to a specific agent who develop the disease ÷ total number of people exposed
Occurs when the rate of disease exceeds the usual (endemic) level of the condition in a defined population
Condition occurs when an epidemic occurs in multiple countries or continents
Agent Host and environment
Age, Gender, Genetics, Ethnicity, Immunological Status, Physiological State, and occupation
Types of Agents
Chemical (drugs & toxins), Physical (Noise & Temperature), Infectious (Viruses & Bacteria)
Types of Environment
Physical (Geography, water/food supply, presence of reservoirs & vectors) and Social (Access to healthcare, high-risk working conditions, poverty)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
415 Exam 1
ATI Community Health Nursing- Chapter 6
Chapter 13: Infectious Disease Prevention and Cont…
Chapter 13: Infectious Disease Prevention and Cont…
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ATI Community Focused Review
Community ATI Focused Review
ATI Community Health Nursing Proctored F…
Ch 16 Delegation