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primary step in helping process-investigation and determination of variables affecting an identified problem or issue
mastery of particular set of knowledge, skills, policies, and programs used by the social worker that addresses the cultural needs of individuals, families, groups, and communities
-become aware of culture and influence
-learn about own culture
-recognize own ethnocentricity
-learn about other cultures
-acquire cultural knowledge about the clients they are working with
-adapt social work skills and interventions to the needs and styles of different cultures
configuration of shared attitudes, values, goals, spiritual beliefs, social expectations, arts, technology, and behaviors that characterize a broader society in which people live.
vast range of differences among groups, including those related to age, class, color, culture, disability, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, and expression, immigration status, political ideology, race, religion, sex, and sexual orientation
larger systems such as organizations, institutions, communities, and society at larger. Work with macro systems may entail policy and/or organizational practices and how this impacts the client. It is always important to empower the client to make changes with in these areas as well. Additionally, macro practice may involve providing organizational analysis, program evaluation reports to a particular organization about its operation(s), policies, staffing procedures, service delivery system, etc.
emphasis on the client's psychological conflicts and on the enhancement of technical skills for use in efficient treatment of these problems. When working with the clients at the micro level the practitioner focuses on individual issues and treatment for the person and his/her individual contacts in order to work on enhancing his/her quality of life.
small groups including family, work groups, and other social groups. Intervention at this level focuses on change in systems that directly affect clients. Work at the mezzo level may be focused on working with families or other small groups, but also empowering the client to maximize their functioning within his/her mezzo systems.
process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations
the ability of an individual, family, group, community, or organization to recover from adversity and resume functioning even when suffering serious trouble, confusion, or hardship
structured groups of people who come together to work toward some mutual goal and perform established work activities that are divided among various units. They have clearly defined membership. Organizational theory entails specific attempts to understand how organizations function as an entity in itself as well as leadership styles within an organization, motivation of members or workers, staffing patterns, policies, etc.
number of people with something in common that connects them in some way and that distinguishes them from others
community theory: two primary components-nature of communities, what constitutes or makes up a community and second how social workers practice within the community context
social work practice and our basis for understanding the dynamics of human behavior -sees people as constantly interacting wtih various systems around them-social work practice is directed at improving the interactions between the person and the various systems (p.21)
a negotiator who acts as a link between parties, one who intervenes between conflicting parties to promote a settlement, a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives (social worker role)
acting as a starting force of a helping relationship; engaging other as part of the service plan., a person who initiates a course of action, person who call attention to an issue
The social work role where one guides and directs a group encounter or gathering is the ________ role.
a person sent to reach an agreement in a dispute between groups, (social work role) brings people in conflict over one or more issues together and seeks to achieve bargaining, and compromising to arrive at mutually acceptable agreements
In the social work ________ role, a worker helps a client system cope with various stresses ranging from crisis situations like divorce or job loss to community issues such as inadequate housing or daycare.
social work role, involves giving information and teaching skills to client or other systems-worker must be knowledgeable, good communicator, present info clearly so it is understood
social work role, process of bringing together various parts to form a unified whole-involves bringing components together in organized manner
A(n) ________ directly represents, defends, intervenes, supports or recommends a course of action on behalf of one or more individuals, groups, or communities, with the goal of securing or retaining social justice.
help link clients together (individuals, groups, organizations, or communities) help client obtain needed resources
Generalist social work practitioner
usually BSW worker, case management-nonspecializing work that includes most social work degree holders
-generalist social work practice refers to the knowledge base, professional values, and practice skill which enable the social work practitioner to intervene with various size systems (individuals, groups, organizations and communities) at whatever level is most efficient to bring about the desired social change.
-the generalist social worker is one who is able to assess, within the framework and ethical guidelines prescribed by the NASW code of ethics, and based on that assessment, identify and intervene at whatever systemic level is most efficient and effective. Problems identified by the worker may require intervention with more than one system and the worker may play several roles (e.g.: facilitator, advocate, broker, enabler, educator, coordinator, activist, mediator, etc.) in an effort to bring about the desired change. A basic principle of generalist practice is that the knowledge and skills necessary to create positive change are transferable form one setting to another.
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue, a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it
a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth, a congenital condition characterized by poor muscle control, spastic, speech defects, and other neurological deficiencies, condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by a brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup, Trisomy 21, a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome
Mutation in enzyme in metabolic pathway causes the amino acid phenylalanine to build up. Body deals wit this by converting it to phenylpyruvic acid which interferes with early development of the nervous system; mental deficiency in untreated young, child cannot produce enzyme needed for normal development; causes intellectual disability (MR)
Low Birth Weight Babies
defined as 5lbs 8 oz or less approximately 7.6 % of babies born in US (1 out of 13) have a low birth weight (lbw)
causes: fetal defects, multiple-birth scenario, prematurity, pregnant mother's behavior-smoking, nutrition, poverty, drug and alcohol use, lack of good prenatal care
most suffer no permanent consequences but may potentially experience developmental delays and long-term disabilities (pp.62-63)
Infertile Couples in the United States
estimated affects 1.7 million couples in US-12% of couples of reproductive age-estimated 1 in 6 American couples trying unsuccessfully to concieve each year
-woman's fertility begins to decrease in 30s
-infertility is the inability to conceive despite trying for one year
-1/3 causes male, 1/3 causes female, and 1/3 causes male and female combined or unknown causes (pp.85-94)
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live, the process by which a society transmits its cultural values to its members, the process by which a society transmits its cultural values to its members
Make up of Single-parent families
more than 28% of all households are single parent households and 83% of those are headed by women
process of a system toward growth and development-opposite of entropy-development of new programs and policies
tendency of a system to progress toward disorganization, depletion, and death-nothing lasts forever
system's tendency to move from a simpler to a more complex existence-relationships and interactions tend to get more complex over time
parenting style: neither permissive and authoritative, somewhere in the middle (provide consistent control and support but allow children to have choices and become independent involve children in decision making, high on communication)
parenting style: definite ideas about how children should behave (lots or rules and expectations, high on control, low on communication)
parenting style: encourage children to be independent and make own choices (child's best friend, low on control, high on child communication)
stereotyping and generalizing about people, usually negatively, b/c of their race; commonly a basis of discrimination against members of racial minority groups-lack of power-changes from culture to culture
is an orientation or set of beliefs that holds one's own culture, ethnic or racial group, or nation is superior to others.
combination of stereotyped beliefs and negative attitudes, so that prejudiced individuals think about people in a predetermined usually negative categorical way
the act of treating people differently because they belong to some group rather than on their own merit-involves physical actions, unequal tx of people b/c they belong to a category
________ is policies, practices, or structures that systematically lead to unequal outcomes for people of color.
discriminatory acts and policies against a racial group that pervade the major macro systems of society
discrimination that is built into the operation of social institutions, including the economy, schools, and the legal system, day-to-day practices of organizations and institutions that have a harmful impact on subordinate groups, the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society, prejudicial treatment in organizations based on official policies, overt behaviors, or behaviors that may be covert but approved by those with power
Strengths of African Americans
identified by the National Urban League: (p. 234)
-strong kinship bonds
-strong work orientation
-adaptability of family roles
-strong achievement orientation
-strong religious orientation
an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated, the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot., a society in which various racial, ethnic, and cultural groups were blended together
In our society, the form that race and ethnic intergroup relations are primarily taking at the present time is: series of coexisting groups each preserving their own traditions and culture but each loyal to American nation living together
putting unfair and extreme limitations and constraints o members of an identified group -unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power (all acts of oppression are also acts of discrimination)
3 major thrusts of Social Work
1) help people solve their problems and cope with their situations (enabler)
2) work with systems, such as social agencies, organizations, communities, and government bureaucracies, so that people can have better access tot he resources and service they need
3) link people with systems so clients can have access to resources and opportunities
secondary or subordinate system that is a component of a larger system (ie: parental and sibling subsystems within a family)
based on the concept of social justice-provide the social work profession with a global and contemporary set of guidelines-involves the premise that all people regardless of race, culture, or national origin, are entitled to basic rights and treatment
The model of community change which asserts that community change can best be brought about through broad participation of a wide spectrum of people at the local community level is called:community involvement/community development involves all people broad range and abilities/skills
Social Action Model
model of community change: assumes there is a disadvantaged (often oppressed) segment of the population that needs to be organized, perhaps in alliance with others in order to pressure the power structure for increased resources
also locality development and community development
-community change can be brought about through broad participation of a wide spectrum of people at the community level
emphasizes: democratic procedures, consensus approach, voluntary cooperation, leadership, and self-help (p. 38)
one model of community change-use problem-solving approach to resolve community problems, emphasis on task goals
skills develops from center to extremities., a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the center of the body (the proximal region) to the extremities (distal regions), the principle that body parts closer to the central axis of the body developed first, while those farther away from the center of the body develop later
a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (or caudal region)., skill develops from head downward through body towards feet.
diagram that plots to social structure of a group, indicating subgroups, identifies leaders and isolated members
a defense mechanism by which your own traits and emotions are attributed to someone else, psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others, often characteristics one is unwilling to recognize in self
Funding for Stem Cell Research
current ban on federally funded research on stem cell research that destroys human embryos and the lack of private and stat-funded research-President Bush determined that federally funding for stem cell research on the 21 lines that had already been harvested, vetoed a modest bill that would have surplus embryos from fertility clinics to be used for research instead of garbage- 60% of Americans support human embryonic stem cell research (pp. 77-78)
OTC drugs and Pregnancy
nonprescription, OTC taken with precaution-aspirin can cause bleeding problems at birth, caffeine consumption with precaution may cause spontaneous abortion or lbw (pp.54-55)
The Psychological Effects of Abortion
research indicates that women rarely suffer long-term psychologically effects from an abortion-some studies show that a woman's well-being actually improved after having an abortion-reported feeling relieved, satisfied, and relatively happy, and report they would do the same again if needed-"post-abortion syndrome" traits similar to PTSD not medically or scientifically recognized-many men respond by feeling powerless-significantly ignored then men's reaction -counseling and partner support produce better psychologically outcomes
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights, The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965, laws which promoted segregation, or the separation of people based on race. These laws worked primarily to restricted the rights of African Americans to use certain schools and public facilities, usually the good ones; to vote; find decent employment and associate with anyone of their own choosing. These laws did not make life "separate but equal," but only served to exclude African Americans and others from exercising their rights as American citizens. In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the US Supreme Court ruled that Jim Crow laws were unconstitutional. It took many years and much effort, however, before Jim Crow laws would be overturned across the country.
Help enforce end to segregation in schools established by Brown decision, a way to desegregate schools, many whites opposed but black liked it but were scared for their children., The use of buses to integrate schools and make them diverse (does not work)
Effective Social Work practice with Ethnic
attuned tot eh values and dispositions related to clients' ethnic group membership and social-class position (p.247-249)
person's internal psychological self-concept of being either male or female, or possibly some combination of both
Life Differences between Whites and Non-Whites
The following is true about nonwhites in this country:
-infant mortality rate is nearly twice as high
-the life expectancy age for nonwhites is several years less than for whites
-unemployment rate more than twice as that of whites
-average number of years of educational achievement is considerably less than for whites
-educational system (pp.254-255)
Strategies Against Discrimination
many social work roles: advocate-for equal treatment of those being oppressed and discriminated against
analysts-of societal conditions that result in institutional racism and advocate for change
initiators-inform social service systems of social injustices
educator-giving info on options to counter oppression
integrators/coordinators-have organizations form a coalition to work together to affect change
counselor-work with oppressed to problem-solve personal concerns
brokers-linking oppressed clients with systems and needed resources (p.252)
5 Steps of case management in the social work process
NASW Code of Ethics
Individual worth and dignity
Client self determination
Commitment to social change and social justice
Respect for Diversity
6 basic ethical principles and social work
Primary goal is to help people in need and to address social problems
Respect the inherent dignity and worth of the person
Recognize the central importance of human relationships
Behave in a trustworthy manner
Practice within their area of competence and develop and enhance their professional experience
10 standards social work practice (cultural competency)
-ethics and values
-empowerment and advocacy
difference between melting pot and cultural pluralism
cultural pluralism-smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture
melting pot-different cultures blended together "in one pot" within society
Culturally Competent Social Work Practice
1) Become aware of culture and pervasive influence
2) Learn about own culture
3) Recognize own ethnocentricity
4) Learn about other cultures
5) Acquire cultural knowledge about clients
6) Adapt SW skills and intervention to the needs and styles of the cultures of clients
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