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Biochemistry Unit 2!!

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cytosine
the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with guanine
guanine
the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with cytosine
adenine
the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine
thymine
the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine
uracil
the replacement nitrogenous base for thymine in RNA
adenine, guanine
purine nitrogenous bases
cytosine, thymine, uracil
pyrimidine nitrogenous bases
nucleotide
deoxyribose sugar molecule
ATP
ribose sugar molecule
phosphate molecule
nucleotide
the combination of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate molecule
adenine, thymine
the nitrogenous bases that bind together with double hydrogen bonds
cytosine, guanine
the nitrogenous bases the bind together with triple hydrogen bonds
semi-conservative
the type of replication that DNA utilizes where each new double helix created is formed from one old and one new strand of DNA
origins of replication
places in the DNA double helix where replication starts
DNA Polymerase III
the enzyme in DNA replication that builds the new nucleotides for DNA
DNA Polymerase I
the enzyme in DNA replication that takes out the DNA primer and fills it in with DNA nucleotides
RNA Polymerase
the enzyme in DNA replication that acts as a primase, placing RNA primers to allow for DNA replication to start
primer
a set of RNA nucleotides that tell DNA polymerase where to begin in DNA replication
ligase
an enzyme in DNA replication that fixes the gap between Okazaki fragments by building phosphodiester bonds
gyrase
an enzyme in DNA replication that uncoils the DNA double helix
helicase
an enzyme in DNA replication that unzips the DNA double helix
single-stranded binding proteins
proteins used in DNA replication that bind to the strands of DNA to prevent them from coiling back up during replication
okazaki fragment
fragments of DNA found on the lagging strand during DNA replication
leading strand
the strand of DNA that is build continuously in the 5'--> 3' direction
lagging strand
the strand of DNA that is built discontinuously
replication fork
the point in the DNA where the gyrase and helicase enzymes act to begin replication
intron
uncoded pieces of mRNA that are spliced out during transcription
exon
the coded portions of mRNA that are saved and exit the nucleus during transcription
snRNP
small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that attach to the mRNA at the introns to splice them away
splicesosome
the combination of snRNPs and introns that are removed during transcription from the mRNA
3' poly A tail
a tail placed on the mRNA that consists of many adenine nucleotides that helps protect the mRNA
5' methyl cap
a cap placed on the mRNA to help protect the mRNA's stability
transcription
the synthesis of mRNA from DNA
TATA box
the area on a DNA molecule in which transcription begins
operon
the purpose of ____________ is to conserve resources, insert genes and regulate its production, and regulate protein synthesis
lac operon
a type of operon controlled by lactose
ara operon
a type of operon controlled by arabinose
operator
the portion of the operon where the repressor binds to (gene)
regulator
the portion of the operon that makes the repressor protein (gene)
promoter
the portion of the operon where the RNA polymerase binds (gene)
repressor
a protein on the operon that binds to the operator and inhibits mRNA production
lactose
a sugar that binds to the repressor in the lac operon, removes it from the plasmid, and allows for mRNA production to occur
operon
consists of the regulator, promoter, operator, and the XYZ genes
ori
the origin of replication where RNA synthesis begins in an operon
permease
an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that allows for direct import of lactose into the cell
lactase
an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that breaks down lactose
lactose
inducer of the lac operon
griffith
the scientist who injected the R and S strains into mice to determine that DNA is the transforming agent
avery
the scientists that took 6 test tubes of heat killed s strain DNA to determine that DNA is the transforming agent
meselson and stahl
the scientists who figured out that DNA replication is semi-conservative by growing generations of different weights of DNA and centrifuging them to determine new weights
hershey and chase
scientists who tagged a virus with a radioactive sulfur protein and a radioactive phosphorus DNA to confirm that DNA is the genetic material
chargaff
the scientist who discovered that base pairs are complementary and that the composition of DNA varies
franklin
the scientist who took of picture of x-ray diffraction of DNA to determine its double helix structure
watson and crick
the scientists who pooled together information from other scientists to create the first model of a DNA double helix
virus
lytic
the viral cycle in which the virus injects the nucleic acid into the cell, it is incorporated, and immediately takes over protein synthesis until the host cell explodes to spread the virus
lysogenic
the viral cycle in which the cycle stops after the nucleic acid is incorporated and the cell continues to live and reproduce with the viral DNA until it reaches an organism or cell where it becomes lytic
mRNA molecules
"working tapes" of instructions that are carried to the ribosomes
amino acid
DNA encodes these sequences to control protein synthesis
proteins
the molecule that is synthesized in the ribosomes of the cell
RNA
the molecular component of the splicesosome that catalyzes the excision reation during mRNA processing
virus
consists of a nucleic acid genome and and protein capsid
metabolite
this binds to the repressor protein and inactivates it in a repressible operon
present
transcription of an inducible operon starts when the pathway's substrate is _________
lytic
the viral cycle in which a large number of phages are released at one time
transformation
the assimilation of external DNA into a cell
hydrogen bonds
the type of bonds between nitrogenous bases in DNA
plasmid DNA
small circles of DNA outside the chromosome in bacteria
restriction enzymes
enzymes that cut DNA into short segments
DNA Polymerase
the enzyme that acts as a proofreader in DNA replication
TATA box
the promoter site in mRNA synthesis
stop codon
the release factor in protein synthesis
translation
protein synthesis