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the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with guanine


the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with cytosine


the purine nitrogenous base that pairs with thymine


the pyrimidine nitrogenous base that pairs with adenine


the replacement nitrogenous base for thymine in RNA

adenine, guanine

purine nitrogenous bases

cytosine, thymine, uracil

pyrimidine nitrogenous bases


deoxyribose sugar molecule

ribose sugar molecule

phosphate molecule


the combination of a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate molecule

adenine, thymine

the nitrogenous bases that bind together with double hydrogen bonds

cytosine, guanine

the nitrogenous bases the bind together with triple hydrogen bonds


the type of replication that DNA utilizes where each new double helix created is formed from one old and one new strand of DNA

origins of replication

places in the DNA double helix where replication starts

DNA Polymerase III

the enzyme in DNA replication that builds the new nucleotides for DNA

DNA Polymerase I

the enzyme in DNA replication that takes out the DNA primer and fills it in with DNA nucleotides

RNA Polymerase

the enzyme in DNA replication that acts as a primase, placing RNA primers to allow for DNA replication to start


a set of RNA nucleotides that tell DNA polymerase where to begin in DNA replication


an enzyme in DNA replication that fixes the gap between Okazaki fragments by building phosphodiester bonds


an enzyme in DNA replication that uncoils the DNA double helix


an enzyme in DNA replication that unzips the DNA double helix

single-stranded binding proteins

proteins used in DNA replication that bind to the strands of DNA to prevent them from coiling back up during replication

okazaki fragment

fragments of DNA found on the lagging strand during DNA replication

leading strand

the strand of DNA that is build continuously in the 5'--> 3' direction

lagging strand

the strand of DNA that is built discontinuously

replication fork

the point in the DNA where the gyrase and helicase enzymes act to begin replication


uncoded pieces of mRNA that are spliced out during transcription


the coded portions of mRNA that are saved and exit the nucleus during transcription


small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that attach to the mRNA at the introns to splice them away


the combination of snRNPs and introns that are removed during transcription from the mRNA

3' poly A tail

a tail placed on the mRNA that consists of many adenine nucleotides that helps protect the mRNA

5' methyl cap

a cap placed on the mRNA to help protect the mRNA's stability


the synthesis of mRNA from DNA

TATA box

the area on a DNA molecule in which transcription begins


the purpose of ____________ is to conserve resources, insert genes and regulate its production, and regulate protein synthesis

lac operon

a type of operon controlled by lactose

ara operon

a type of operon controlled by arabinose


the portion of the operon where the repressor binds to (gene)


the portion of the operon that makes the repressor protein (gene)


the portion of the operon where the RNA polymerase binds (gene)


a protein on the operon that binds to the operator and inhibits mRNA production


a sugar that binds to the repressor in the lac operon, removes it from the plasmid, and allows for mRNA production to occur


consists of the regulator, promoter, operator, and the XYZ genes


the origin of replication where RNA synthesis begins in an operon


an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that allows for direct import of lactose into the cell


an enzyme coded for in the lac operon that breaks down lactose


inducer of the lac operon


the scientist who injected the R and S strains into mice to determine that DNA is the transforming agent


the scientists that took 6 test tubes of heat killed s strain DNA to determine that DNA is the transforming agent

meselson and stahl

the scientists who figured out that DNA replication is semi-conservative by growing generations of different weights of DNA and centrifuging them to determine new weights

hershey and chase

scientists who tagged a virus with a radioactive sulfur protein and a radioactive phosphorus DNA to confirm that DNA is the genetic material


the scientist who discovered that base pairs are complementary and that the composition of DNA varies


the scientist who took of picture of x-ray diffraction of DNA to determine its double helix structure

watson and crick

the scientists who pooled together information from other scientists to create the first model of a DNA double helix


the viral cycle in which the virus injects the nucleic acid into the cell, it is incorporated, and immediately takes over protein synthesis until the host cell explodes to spread the virus


the viral cycle in which the cycle stops after the nucleic acid is incorporated and the cell continues to live and reproduce with the viral DNA until it reaches an organism or cell where it becomes lytic

mRNA molecules

"working tapes" of instructions that are carried to the ribosomes

amino acid

DNA encodes these sequences to control protein synthesis


the molecule that is synthesized in the ribosomes of the cell


the molecular component of the splicesosome that catalyzes the excision reation during mRNA processing


consists of a nucleic acid genome and and protein capsid


this binds to the repressor protein and inactivates it in a repressible operon


transcription of an inducible operon starts when the pathway's substrate is _________


the viral cycle in which a large number of phages are released at one time


the assimilation of external DNA into a cell

hydrogen bonds

the type of bonds between nitrogenous bases in DNA

plasmid DNA

small circles of DNA outside the chromosome in bacteria

restriction enzymes

enzymes that cut DNA into short segments

DNA Polymerase

the enzyme that acts as a proofreader in DNA replication

TATA box

the promoter site in mRNA synthesis

stop codon

the release factor in protein synthesis


protein synthesis

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