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A Level Tudor History Edexcel: Religious Changes

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What did Cromwell change in the English Church?
- 1535; Appointed Vicegerent in Spirituals, alters doctrine, new bishops appointed by him
- Preaching controlled throught govt. licenses, must give sermons vs pope and support Henry's marriage to Boleyn
- Attacked trad pilgrimages
- Henry VIII allowed this to undermine authority of pope and Catholic church
What was the reaction to the break with Rome?
- Henry determined to enforce obedience
- Parliamentary legislation made it possible for Henry to claim break was legal, those who disobeyed were breaking the law
- 1534 Treason Act made it possible to prosecute those who wouldn't swear oath (influential opponents were executed)
- Conservative faction emerges at Court aim to see restoration Catholicism, saw Princess Mary as figurehead
What purpose did the monasteries have?
- Support for the poor, care for elderly
- Education
- Copying and preserving texts and books
- Employment for unskilled agricultural workers and skilled craftmen
- Medical help, retirement home
- 900 religious houses, 12,000 people in religious orders
- Particularly important in North which faced many economic and social hardships
- Controlled by foreign Catholic orders in France, Spain and Italy, which were potential hostile powers
What was the process of the dissolution of smaller monasteries?
- 1535, Valor Ecclesiasticus survey Church property and revealed overall wealth of £1.3 mil
- Visitations by Legh and Layton to find evidence of corruprion
- Justifies 1536 Act of Parliament, destruction of buildings, lead stripped and melted, glass smashed
-Louth scared new church spire would be destroyed, rebellion sparked which spreads to Yorkshire and northern areas
What religious causes were there for 1536 rebellions?
- Dissolution of monasteries
- Discontent about direction of Henry's religious policies
- Cromwell's attacks on pilgrimages and worship of saints
- Scared for souls after death
- Fear and anger
- Seen in actions and demands of rebels e.g. name 'Pilgrimage' of Grace, oath taken, banner of Christ, rebelling in God's name
- Lincoln Articles; 'Suppression of religious houses to be suppressed'
- Pontefract, supremacy of church 'reserved to See of Rome', 'suppressed abbeys to be restored to their houses'
What social and economic causes were there for 1536 rebellions?
- 1534 tax subsidy levied in peacetime, hit North badly due to bad weather and poor harvests
- Commissioners inquire into ability to pay, seen as intrusion of privacy and more government intrusions
- Entry fines paid when tenant dies and succeeded by heir
- Enclosures, some tenants forced off land, increases demand for land
- Poorer peasants and agricultural workers join rebellion
- Lincoln Articles; 'act of uses may be suppressed', 'importunate charge' (stop peacetime taxes)
- Pontefract: 'discharged of the....taxes'
'That no man shall not will his lands repealed'
What political causes were there for 1536 rebellions?
- Nobility and gentry such as Sir Thomas Percy and Lord Darcy involved
- Possibly Conservative plot to restore Princess Mary to royal succession and remove Cromwell
- Catholic sympathies explain demands to repeal 1534 Act of Supremacy and removal of Cromwell
- Moderate rebellion from within, too large to externally control
- Commons recruited gentry, not other way round
- Act of Uses in 1535, restricted Enfeoffment to uses (landowner creates trustees for land and heir, king can't claim custody of it or any heirs), demands for this to be repealed may indicate increasingly directed and controlled by gentry and nobility
- Lincoln Articles; Article 4 (removal of Cromwell and Sir Richard Rich) and 5 (remove reformer bishops)
- Pontefract: 'Lady Mary may be made legitimate', 'Parliament at Nottingham or York'
What was the Lincolnshire Rising?
- October 1536, caused by local reaction to radical changes imposed by Henry and Cromwell
- Use of set demands used to justify actions, weren't rebelling against Henry but his 'evil counsellors'
- 'Commonwealth' = good of realm, show they care about common good, not own interests
- Sparked by arrival of Bishops of Lincoln's officers to carry out visitation, 3,000 meet, govt. commissioners forced to flee
- 9th Oct., chancellor of Bishop of Lincoln brought to Horncastle, killed by angry mob, draw up petition, 10,000 men march to Lincoln, local nobility flee, another petition written and sent to London
- Army 40 miles away, leading gentry waver, king's reply is severe punishment if they don't disband, ask Suffolk for pardon, commoners angered but persuaded to go home by Suffolk rep on 11 Oct.
Was the Lincolnshire Rising a threat to Henry's government?
- Started among ordinary men of Louth, then joined by vicar and monks who were all executed after rebellion
- Gathered momentum due to involvement of JP gentry, tho they claimed to have joined only to control it and prevent the rising from becoming violent/dangerous
- 10,000 rebels, involvement of clergy and monks was dangerous as Church was instrumental in teaching obedience and social hierarchy, speed of support
- In touch with discontented Yorkshire men, could have posed even bigger threat however was only easily dealt with as Yorkshire was not ready to rebel yet
- Royal army quickly emerged led by Duke of Suffolk, and threat of punishment led to leadership quickly backing down
- Tho this led Henry to feel secure as he disbands seconds army sent to North, leaving only Suffolk's which later causes issues
What was the Pilgrimage of Grace?
- 10 October, East Riding of Yorkshire, by 16th rebellion had 10,000 supporters, take over city of York
- Aske issues proclamation of peaceful intentions and wanting to protect Church, restored 2 religious houses
- 19th captured port of Hull and Pontefract Castle
- North Riding of Yorkshire also rose on 11th, support from leading gentry and nobility, capture Barnard Castle
- 21st rebel army besiege Skipton Castle
- Nine rebel hosts had formed, 30,000, had well-trained fighters, rebels had 3 weeks to prepare, 23rd October Duke of Norfolk march North with 8,000 men, negotiate, meeting on 27th, send 5 articles, then 24, 2nd meeting on 6 December, rebels ask for king's pardon, granted with promise of parliament to be held in North and further negot on monasteries
What was the Bigod's Rising?
- Jan 1537, former Pilgrims realise Henry had tricked them
- Brief unsuccessful rising led by Sir Francis, only few hundred join, he is captured in Cumberland in Feb
- Rebels attack Carlisle, put down by Sir Christopher
- Henry sends Duke of Norfolk carry out brutal suppression of rebels, Carlisle rebels hanged, executions throughout Cumberland, gentry turned against rebels
- Aske and Sir Francis executed
Was the Pilgrimage of Grace a threat to Henry's government?
- Huge number of rebels and rapid gathering, events of Lincolnshire had distracted the Duke of Suffolk and army
-Threatening with gentry and nobility who joined, well-organised, co-ordinate protest with efficiency
-Duke of Norfolk forced to negotiate
- Eventually defeated, Aske (leader) believed promises and Henry exploited further tensions
- Henry able to keep enough men on his side to control situation
Leadership of Robert Aske
- Came up with name 'PoG for commonwealth', associates protest w/trad Catholic ritual believed to cleanse soul (propaganda)
- Acted as military captain, organised musters of commons in Yorkshire when rebellion broke out
- Insistent on remaining peaceful, orderly and loyal to Henry VIII
- Legal training and member of gentry family made him natural leader and able to negotiate w/ other gentry → spoke to Lord Darcy at Pontefract to persuade him to join movement and organised compilation of Pontefract Articles
- Idealism and conviction in moral rightness of protest meant he was too willing to accept apparent concessions offered by Duke of Norfolk Dec 1536
- Naive; return to North in Jan 1936 told gentry about Henry's promises for northern parliament and royal progress but lack of action of king made rebels suspicious → led to renewed rebellion by Sir Francis Bigod
- Though he wasn't involved in later rebellions, his role as Pilgrim leader = arrested, charge w/treason and execution July 1937
Leadership of Sir Francis Bigod
- Though an evangelical reformist and gentry implementing Cromwell's reforms he was concerned about king's supremacy over the Church
- Believed only clergymen should decide on doctrine and organisation of Church → after being caught by rebels reluctantly joins rebellion
- Jan 1537 w/Hallam tries to start new rebellion in East Yorkshire, plan to capture Hull and Scarborough but lil support (lacked leadership and didn't share same religious beliefs)
- Captured in Cumberland 10 Feb, executed June
Role of Thomas Cromwell
- Initially vulnerable as rebellion played into hands of conservative faction however their involvement in rebellions and executions = strengthening of his position
- Used rebellion to purge remaining rival claimants to throne e.g. Henry Pole and Henry Courtenay (accused of treason and executed)
- Used monastery involvement in risings as pretext to close larger monasteries
- Encouraged 'voluntary' closures e.g. abbots willing surrendered their monasteries to the Crown rewarded w/pensions
- Act for the Suppression of Religious Houses passed 1539
- 1538 second set of injunctions of clergy, every parish church ordered to have a copy of Bible in English
- 1536 rebellions didn't discourage pursuit of religious reforms but encouraged continuation
Role of Henry VIII
- Any rebellion seen as defiance of his rule, rejects petitions and write to Lincolnshire rebels with threats and works
- Assumed same response to PoG would be successful, underestimated scale and determination of rebels
- Norfolk persuades him to use diff tactic, writes again offering negotiation between Norfolk and 300 rebel rep
- Made promises to address grievances tho never in writing, Pilgrims unable to prove promises and Henry could go back on his word, always aimed for violent revenge
Role of the Duke of Norfolk
- Advised Henry to negotiate, took him till December 1936 to convince him
- Suggested proposal of North parliament to give govt time to rearm
- As member of conservative faction, was able to gain trust of Aske and other nobility and gentry, and negotiated by promising compromises convincing rebels to accept king's pardon
- 1537 sent to North w/armed force due to further unrest, exploited increasing divisions between commons and former gentry by recruiting them to his council
- Declared martial law, dealt with Bigod's rising and failed attack on Carlisle
Extent of Repression 1537
- 144 executed e.g. Aske, Lord Darcy, Francis Bigod
- Leading clerics also executed and 74 of Carlisle rebels
- Tho didn't stop monasteries dissolution, changed tactics and reorganised Council of the North some members of which were former Pilgrims