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Chapter 12: Encryption and Hashing Concepts
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Terms in this set (32)
cryptography
practice and study of hiding information
encryption
process of changing information using an algorithm into another form unreadable by others unless they possess the key
cipher
algorithm that can perform encryption or decryption
algorithms
well-defined instructions that describe computations from their initial state to final state
key
essential piece of information that determines the output of a cipher
symmetric key algorithm
class of cipher that uses identical or closely related keys for encryption and decryption
stream cipher
type of algorithm that encrypts each byte in a message one at a time
block cipher
type of algorithm that encrypts a number of bits as individual units known as blocks
asymmetric key algorithm
cipher that uses pair of different keys to encrypt and decrypt data
public key cryptography
uses asymmetric keys alone or in addition to symmetric keys. creates secret private key and published public key
private key
type of key that is known only to a specific user or users who keep the key a secret
public key
type of key that is known to all parties involved in encrypted transactions within a given group
digital signature
authenticates a document through math, letting recipient know that document was created and sent by actual sender
certificate
digitally signed electronic documents that bind a public key with a user identity
steganography
science of writing hidden messages. form of security through obscurity
Data Encryption Standard
older type of block cipher selected by the government as encryption standard in 70s. (deprecated)
Triple DES
similar to DES but applies the cipher algorithm three times to each cipher block
Advanced Encryption Standard
encryption protocol used with WPA/WPA2. Strongest encryption method
RSA
public key cryptography algorithm used in e-commerce. uses integer factorization cryptography. examples include SecurID USB dongles, HSM, and TPM.
Diffie-Hellman key exchange
invented in 70s, first practical method for establishing shared secret key used for secret communications over a public network
elliptic curve cryptography
type of public key cryptography that uses logarithms calculated against a finite field based on difficulty of certain math problems
one-time pad
cipher that encrypts plaintext with a secret random key that is the same length as the plaintext
Pretty Good Privacy
encryption program used primarily for signing, encrypting, and decrypting emails in an attempt to increase the security of email communications
hash
summary of a file or message. generated to verify integrity of file or message
hash function
mathematical procedure that converts variable-sized amount of data into a smaller block of data
cryptographic hash functions
hash functions based on block ciphers
Message-Digest Algorithm 5
a 128-bit key hash used to provide integrity of files and messages
Secure Hash Algorithm
group of hash functions designed by the NSA and published by the NIST, widely used in government
birthday attack
attack on a hashing system that attempts to send two different messages with the same hash function, causing a collision
LANMAN hash
original hash used to store Windows passwords, known as LM hash, based off the DES algorithm
NTLM hash
successor to the LM hash. more advanced has used to store Windows passwords, based off RC4 algorithm
NTLM2 hash
successor to the NTLM hash. based off the MD5 hashing algorithm
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