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Phonetics: Vowels, Consonants
Voicing, Place, Manner Terminology
Terms in this set (50)
Front Vowels of Quadrilateral
There are 5:
/i/, /I/, /eI/, /ɛ/, /æ/
*50% of all English vowels
*( I = capital i)
Two vowel sounds that go together to make one phoneme
It has an ON glide and an OFF glide.
/aʊ/, /ɔI/,/aI/, /eI/, /oʊ/
*( I = capital i)
Rhotic Diphthongs/ Rhotic Digraphs
There are 8:
/Ir/ (fear, beer), /ɛr/ (hair, spare), /ɑr/ (star, shark), /ɔr/ (court, ward), /ɚ/ (father, mother), /aʊr/ (power, shower), /ɝ/ (her, bird), /aIr/ (tire)
*( I = capital i)
Central Vowels of Quadrilateral
There are 4:
/Ə/, /˄/, /ɚ/, /ɝ/
Back Vowels of Quadrilateral
There are 5:
/u/, /ʊ/, /oʊ/, /ɔ/, /ɑ/
Variations of graphemes that can = one phoneme
ss, ci, sh, si, ti
Poked out lips
Top 4 back vowels ( /u/, /ʊ/, /oʊ/, /ɔ/) of quadrilateral and /ɝ/
Preferred non-perpheral vowel-schwa (/Ə/)
Most neutral vowel (/Ə/)
Decreasing duration & articulating vowel more towards center of oral cavity
-a shortening or unstressing of a vowel
Syllabic marker, shows syllabification
Occurs under a consonant in a later syllable where that consonant is contiguous (next to) to a consonant in a presiding syllable.
Occurs on vowels
- serves as a syllable nucleus
- less constriction
- one vowel sound in a syllable
1. Articulators are positioned so not to constrict oral and pharyngeal cavities.
2. sound of interest can be sustained indefinitely
3. syllable (with some exceptions) must include a vowel as its nucleus.
pure vowel-having one single unchanging sound quality
vowel-like sound produced with gradually on glide, off glide
/aI/ tongue gradually changes position from /a/ to /I/
*( I = capital i)
[/i/, /eI/, /u/, /ɔ/, /ɑ/, /ɝ/]
tenseness of sound
degree of muscle activity involved in the vowel articulation and to the duration of the vowel. Tense vowels have greater muscle activity and longer duration than lax vowels.
[/I/, /ɛ., /æ/, /ʊ/, /Ə/, /˄/, /ɚ/]
can never end a stressed syllable
-Voicing -Place -Manner
Bilabials (two lips)
/b/- voiced, bilabial, plosive (stop)
/p/- voiceless, bilabial plosive (stop)
/m/- voiced, bilabial, nasal
/w/- voiced, bilabial, glide
upside down w- voiceless, bilabial
Labiodental (top teeth, bottom lip)
/f/- voiceless, labiodental, fricative
/v/- voiced, labiodental, fricative
Interdentals (between teeth)
Voiced and Voiceless "th"
/ð/- voiced,interdental, fricative
/ө/- voiceless, interdental, fricative
Lingua alveolars (tongue tip to alveolar ridge)
/t/- voiceless, lingua alveolar, stop
/d/- voiced, lingua alveolar, stop
/l/ (lowercase L)- voiced, lingua alveolar, lateral
/s/- voiceless, lingua alveolar, fricative
/n/- voiced, lingua alveolar, nasal
/z/- voiced, lingua alveolar, fricative
Lingua Palatals (middle of tongue-blade-to palate)
/ʃ/ - voiceless, lingua palatal, fricative
"ch"- voiceless, lingua palatal, affricate
/ʒ/- voiced, lingua palatal, fricative
/dʒ/- voiced, lingua palatal, affricate
/r/= voiced, lingua palatal, rhotic
/j/- voiced, lingua palatal, glide
Velars (back of tongue to soft palate)
/k/- voiceless, velar, stop
/g/- voiced, velar, stop
/ŋ /- voiced, velar, nasal
Glottals (throat, between vocal fold, frication of air)
/h/- voiceless, glottal, fricative
/ˀ/- voiced, glottal, stop (British English, found in bottle, cattle)
Tongue position can be described according to two dimensions:
1. a dimension of high-low (superior-inferior)
2. a dimension of front-back (anterior-
when a vowel ordinarily produced as a monophthong is articulated with a diphthongal character
when a diphthong is produced as a monophthong, or single element vowel. Ex. A southerner might say /ha/ for /haI/- Hi
when a normally r-colored vowel (or, are, ear, air, etc.) loses all or part of the r color.
two sounds varying only by voicing
consonants sounds that produce a short burst of noise, called the stop burst
-stop plosives or plosives
Non occurring plosive
In a word final position in which the sound is unreleased.... so that you do not hear the final sound and some would think that the client had a final consonant deletion
/t/, /t̚ /
Lingua Alveolar Flap
modified stop sound, in which a rapid stroking or flapping motion of the tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge very briefly.
a sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise.
There are 9:
/f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/
Are combination sounds made with a stop closure followed by a fricative segment
"ch"- chin, /dʒ/- joke
A nasal consonant is produced with complete oral closure (like a stop), but with an open velopharynx, so that voicing energy travel through the nose.
a vowel-like consonant in which voicing energy passes through a vocal tract that is only constricted somewhat more than for vowels.
/l/ (lowercase L) and rhotic sounds
Have a midline closure and lateral opening for sound transmission.
A manner of articulatory production that involves a gliding movement from a partly constricted vocal tract to a more open vocal tract shape.
Voice onset time
interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing.
If the onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event
If the onset voicing follows the articulatory event
the frication noise generated as air flows through the vocal folds and into the upper cavities.
-In English, released voiceless stops are aspirated unless they follow /s/
-Voiced stops are unaspirated in English
When two or more sounds share the same place of articulation
-n, t, and d are homorganic sounds as they are all lingua-alveolar sounds
When two or more sounds share the same manner of articulation
-f, s, sh, and th are all fricatives
a sound made with a complete or narrow constriction at some point in the vocal tract.
trill is a sound made with a supraglottal vibration.
Our raspberry is a bilabial trill
Non Pulmonic Consonants
2. voiced implosives
These sounds are made with vocal tract actions that generate sound in the absence of an egressive airstream from the lungs
Alveolar and palatal fricative are much more intense than labiodental, dental and glottal fricatives
(/s/ & /z/), (/ʃ/ & /ʒ/)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 4 - Vowels and Dipthongs
Fundamentals of Phonetics: Chapter 4
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