Chapter 6: Existential Therapy

EXAM 2
STUDY
PLAY
existentialism
to emerge or to stand out
T or F: there are various founders for existentialism
True because there is no real founder
What are 5 famous names for the existentialist theory?
1) soren kierkegaard, 2) Victor Frankl, 3) Rollo May, 4) James Bugental, 5) Irvin Yalom
What did Kierkegaard believe?
he believed that the self is responsible for determining who you are since you are who you are.
Explain Kierkegaards idea of a mass man?
the mass man lives his life in grudgery in which he wimps out and lives in a world of fantasy
What are the 8 core assertions of existential psychology?
1) human beings have a choice to be authentic or fake along with being free. They can choose to wimp out but that is not reality. 2) we must make choices without fixed meanings like if at birth someone took you and dropped you in a well which is the world then you continue to fall and have to create meaning of why are you are still falling. 3) as we fall down we realize that there are other people also falling but we have to accept regardless of that we will always be alone. 4) When you know your are going to die it gives life more meaning. 5) when we grow in life is not when life is good, we grow at the lowest point of life during the dark night (Abraham & test of faith). 6) we live in an existential vacuum which means we have the means to live but have no meaning to live for. 7) psychological symptoms are symbols of despair which is suffering which is equal to meaning. 8) when we go through life we are really seeking for people, place and things to make us feel secure.
Why dont people like to be free?
because then they cannot blame anyone for their choices
T or F: he who has a why to live for can bear with almost any how according to Nietzche as a core assertion in Existentialism.
True
What are the 3 modes of being in the world according to existentialists?
1) umwelt, 2) eigenwelt, 3) mitwelt
umwelt
world shared by all organisms makes us subject to biological and natural laws. (Freuds 2 instincts)
eigenwelt
self-awareness- the world no one but the individual knows. Our experiences are different in the perspective of those we share them with. (EX: sex for you and for your husband)
T or F: when you see someone for sex you strip them of their humanity
true
mitwelt
we make social connections not to use them or abuse them
T or F: we must increase self-awareness
true
How do we increase self-awareness?
by opening every door in life to expand your awareness good and bad. these doors will never be able to close.
What are 3 reasons for why we as humans have the capacity to be self-aware?
1) it makes us created in God's image as we self-reflect on who we are, 2) we only get to live a short time and then we die so it is important, 3) to see life at its fullest you have to understand life has an end.
What are 3 main arguments about freedom for existentialists?
we have a freedom we dont want because it takes responsibility (as charles swindoll), freedom leads to anxiety and guilt but since we cant control that it is about what we do with our emotions, and we are responsible for our attitudes in suffering not our feelings.
What is the role of anxiety in existentialism?(3)
1) its a normal part of the human life, 2) anxiety is the "dizziness" of freedom and 3) it motivates us to change
what are 3 types of guilt?
normal, neurotic and existential
normal guilt
related to the environment
neurotic guilt
out of control decisions
existential guilt
awareness of responsibility
What happens when people dont make decisions?
they allow fate to make it for them
what is "bad faith"?
blaming responsibility on others
T or F: in the face of pure torture you can choose to become bitter or you can make it positive.- Dont become a victim and give in to your suffering
true
What are the 11 ways that we strive for identity and relationships with others?
1) we have to discover our self authentically stripping away from society, 2) it is not an automatic process, 3) we may have a fear of not having core beliefs which leads to anxiety.4) we need courage to see that we are not a collection of others beliefs, 5) We are alone no matter what you believe, 6) we tend to use people and dont relate to others out of fear about alone. 7) by having sex or one-night stands we numb the fact we are alone, 8) we exist for others so they can't feel unneeded, 9) we get fused to others we can not be separated, 10) we become sadist and destroy others so that they cannot be without us, 11) we need to accept our aloneness but we soothe it by being around others who dont love us.
What are the 8 ways to show true love?
1) being unselfish, 2) experience partner regardless of weaknesses, 3) help partner to be the best they can be, 4) love acts, 5) love is not a magic feeling it is an approach to life, 6) mature love runs from accepting we are alone and that past relationships are sources of our strength strength we incorporate in present relationships, 7) love is like a boomerang, 8) love is unconditional without praise or reward
What are 3 ways we can find meaning of life?
1) through creative acts, 2) in what we experience in the world, 3) the position you take in the face of suffering
Describe Freuds, Adlers and Frankels theory of source for meanign of life.
freud= humans are dictated by pleasure- sex; adler= humans are dictated by power; frankel= humans are dictated by meaning.
Describe the 3 concepts of the search for meaning.
1) we are born in a world with no meaning and we require it, 2) there is no meaning to live for and so we live in an existential vacuum (such as the guy in concentration camp that lost his dream and died), 3) meaning is not prescribed it guides people(like the cloud and pillar of fire for Israelites)
What are 4 existentialist goals?
1) help client stop denying freedom and accept responsibility, 2) find authentic self and not societal, 3) help them remove neurotic and normal anxiety but increase existentialist, 4) increase awareness and help them realize death is the exit and they are alone
Describe the relationship between therapist and client according to the Existentialist (4)
1) therapy is a journey for 2 people, 2) the key to therapy is the person to person connection not the client as an object, 3)therapist becomes aware of who they are at the soul level(phenomenological), 4) therapy is best when deepest part of therapist is deepest part of client
What are the 3 stages of Existentialist therapy?
1) Clients are helped to determine and clarify their assumptions of the world, 2) clients determine who gave them their beliefs or who was the source of encouragement, 3) clients take courage to take from anxiety to apply to their life and put what they learned into action.
T or F: Techniques are used and so are Adlers and Freuds views in existentialism
False
T or F: techniques serve as a way to create distance between therapist and client according to existentialists
true
existential is similar to what book of the Bible?
ecclesiastes
Who founded the youth Advisement Center?
Frankel
Who believed that our salvation is through love?
frankel
Who was imprisoned in Aushwitz: Frankel or May?
frankel
Who struggled with his own existential concerns through the failure of 2 marriages: frankel or may?
may
who got tuberculosis and during his time in hospital read kierkegaard?
may
who was May's personal influence and menotr?
Paul tillich
Who believed that psychotherapy should be aimed at helping people discover meaning of their lives and hsould be concerned with the problems of being rather than with problem solving?
May
What did Kierkegaard believe was what helped us discover who we were?
anxiety or angst
What did Nietzche beleive was what helped us discover ourselves?
the will to power
What did heidegger believe was what helped us discover who we were?
our moods and feelings are a way of understanding our authenticity
What did Sartre believe was what helped us discover who we were?
our values are what we choose and who we are
who called bad excuses bad faith?
Sartre
What did Buber believe was what helped us discover who we were?
The I person changes if the other person is an IT or THOU
What did Binswanger believe was what helped us discover who we were?
existential analysis
existential analysis
emphasizes the subjective and spiritual dimensions of human existence
logotherapy(frankel)
therapy through meaning
What are the 4 givens of existence
death, freedom & responsibility, existential isolation and meaninglessness
existential tradition seeks waht?
a balance between recognizing the limits and tragic dimensions of human existence on onehand and th epossibilities and opportunities of human life on the other hand
authenticity
implies we are living by being true to our own evaluation of what is valuablr existence for ourselves
T or F: when a client becomes more self-confident, the anxiety that results from an expectation of catastrophe will decrease.
True
restricted existence
therapists with an existential orientation usually deal with people who have a limited awareness of themselves and are often vague about the nature of their problems.
In existential group counseling members come to terms with what paradoxes of existence:
1) life can be undone by death, 2) success is precarious, 3) we are determined to be free, 4) we are responsible for a world we did not choose, 5) we must make choices in the face of doubt and uncertainty.
What is a strength of existentialism for multiculturalism?
it enables clients to examine the degree to which their behavior is being influenced by social and cultural conditioning
T or F: in working with people from ghetto or barrio it is important to bring up survival issues
True
What is a major criticism?
it lakcs a systematic statement of the principles and practices of psychotherapy
Existential therapy is best described as a:
philosophy on which a therapist operates.
What is a limitation of the existential approach in working with culturally diverse client populations?
The focus on one's own responsibility rather than the focus on social conditions.
Existential therapy places emphasis on:
both the quality of the client/therapist relationship and finding meaning in a meaningless world.
Which of the following is not true of the existential concept of aloneness?
a. Aloneness can be a path to finding one's identity.
b. It is a source of strength.
c. It is part of the human condition.
d. We must learn to stand alone before we can stand beside another.
e. It is the result of our neurotic fear of intimacy.
It is the result of our neurotic fear of intimacy.
In working with a client from an existential perspective, the goals of therapy would most likely be:
increasing awareness and the potential for choice.
The existential therapist would probably agree that:
ultimately we are alone.
Guilt and anxiety are viewed as:
conditions that keep us in an existential vacuum.
Which of the following is not true about Frankl's logotherapy?
a. It involves working with a client's "will to meaning."
b. The more we seek meaning, the more we are likely to find it.
c. In developing this approach, Frankl was influenced by writings of existential philosophers.
d. The therapist points out that clients can find meaning in suffering.
e. It is designed to help the person find meaning in life.
The more we seek meaning, the more we are likely to find it.
"Bad faith" refers to:
the inauthenticity of not accepting personal freedom.
According to the existentialists, anxiety is generated by:
freedom and responsibility.
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