WGU Intro to Communication
Terms in this set (285)
exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages with the intent of stimulating particular meanings in the minds of others.
stimulate the meanings we intend in the minds of others
communication between and among people and groups across national, ethnic, and other cultural boundaries.
Four Challenges of Communication
-Effective communication requires significant intellectual and psychological resources.
-Not everyone we encounter will appreciate the value of communication.
-We may over-rely on digitally mediated communication.
-We live in a diverse world where intercultural understanding can be difficult.
Linear Model of Communication
reveals the basic components of a simple exchange between two people. It illustrates a straightforward process in which an individual communicator transmits a message to a receiving communicator.
Linear Model of Communication Phases
Phase 1: Deciding on the message.
Phase 2: Encoding the message
Phase 3: Transmitting the message.
Phase 4: Perceiving the message
Phase 5: Decoding and assigning meaning to the message.
psychological process in which the sender of a message assigns symbols, such as words, sounds, or gestures, to his or her thoughts and feelings.
the medium that carries the message, such as email, telephone, face-to-face communication, or a written document.
opposite of encoding, receiver translates the symbols (words, sounds, and gestures) perceived into thoughts and feelings.
Transactional Model of Communication
feedback, along with consideration of the factors that make accurate decoding of messages difficult, transforms the linear model into the transactional model.
more detailed, realistic model of communication illustrates how the sender and the receiver develop, share, shape, and reshape ideas at the same time. In other words, communication is more than talking or telling
verbal or nonverbal message that a receiver provides to the sender as he or she perceives and assigns meaning to the sender's message
characteristics of the transactional model
-Communicators are simultaneously encoding and decoding messages at all times during an interaction.
-Our previous interactions with one another influence our present communication.
the environment and situation in which communication occurs.
Examples of communication contexts
family, the classroom, the workplace, and intimate contexts such as marriage, close friendships, or significant, committed relationships
clearly defined and specified functions that each member of the team possesses
formal expectations that guide team members' interactions with one another as well as their task performance
argued persuasively that the medium selected for communication shapes the very nature of human association
refers to one's ability to "choose among available communicative behaviors to accomplish one's goals during an encounter"
Communication competence is comprised of three interrelated skill sets or dimensions:
appropriateness, communication skills, and motivation.
When we communicate successfully and stimulate meanings in the minds of others, we achieve:
We attempt to communicate effectively in order...
to manage communication challenges, create personal opportunities, make better decisions, and make meaningful connections with others
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary challenges of communication?
Our desire to persuade others
Which of the following resources is NOT necessary for effective communication?
The ability to persuade someone and change his or her mind
When we constantly communicate by email, text, or tweet, we
become more avoidant of sensitive or difficult conversations.
Which of the following is not a component of the linear model of communication?
The linear model fails to recognize that when an individual is sending a message to someone:
Correct. The linear model fails to recognize the receiver in an interaction as a communicator.
The transactional model of communication accounts for the relationships among individuals who communicate, meaning that
the way individuals package or present a message changes based on whether they have a formal, friendly, or intimate relationship with the person they are communicating with.
Which of the following best explain why the transactional model of communication is more realistic than the linear model?
It does not see communication as simple and moving in one direction.
It takes any communication as dependent on multiple factors, including context, relationship between communicators, and the medium of communication.
It allows for the possibility of a communicator using multiple channels.
If you are aware of the people involved, your intended communication goal, the nature of the environment, and the physical setting of the interaction, then you are practicing which part of communication competence?
You are aware of the appropriateness of certain communication in a particular context.
In order to build and strengthen your communication skills, you must:
Analyze and reflect on any feedback or outcome of your past interactions with others.
Three stages of perception
selection, organization, and interpretation
4 Principles of Selection
we remember things that we agree with rather than things that are contrary to our beliefs.
our inclination to see, hear, and believe what we want to see, hear, and believe. We apply our own unique experiences to the message.
once we are engaged in a particular interaction, we focus on certain information and ignore other information.
we will attend to information that reinforces existing beliefs and disregard information that is at odds with our current position.
a communicator's efforts to group information into meaningful units to make further sense out of the information.
the foreground or point of emphasis for your attention.
represents the background of the particular stimuli that capture your focused attention.
ability to fill in missing information to complete a perception.
physical closeness, in relation to other information.
the degree to which something shares attributes with other stimuli
we assign meaning to stimuli. Our interpretation relies on both our internal states and the characteristics of the stimuli themselves.
How well you see or hear, your height, and even how well you smell can affect how you perceive the stimuli around you.
the ways in which you express your cultural and group affiliations. gender identification, sexuality, religion, and the groups with which you associate
does not refer to the group itself, but rather to the norms, language, lifestyles, beliefs, and habits of the group, which are typically developed through the group's interaction.
Current Internal States
hungry, tired, fearful and anxious, confident, well-rested, cold, or warm
the way you define yourself. In developing a self-concept, we look to the groups we are a part of, the roles we play, the relationships and experiences we have (and have had), and our interpretation of how others evaluate us.
is the degree to which you approve of, value, and like the concept that you have of yourself
assuming a standard, generalized profile of an individual, because he or she belongs to a group.
occur when, in interpreting our own or others' behavior, we rely on faulty explanations, reasons, or information.
fundamental attribution error
the mistake we make when we attribute other people's positive characteristics and successes to external, situational factors, and their negative characteristics and failures to aspects of who they are.
locus of causation
refers to whether the communicator's behavior was motivated by an internal state (such as intelligence, compassion, or honesty) or an external factor (such as resources, luck, favoritism, or the situation)
When we are successful, we attribute our successes to some internal positive qualities—intelligence, charm, knowledge of current events or popular culture, persuasiveness, or competent communication. However, when we fail, we blame the situation
the strategic development and use of verbal and nonverbal messages that result in others making conclusions about the kind of individual you are
Sociologist Erving Goffman "first impressions"
the deliberate use of verbal and nonverbal messages to create a particular impression among others
Set a goal
Create a strategy
Execute the strategy and evaluate the results
Modify negative perceptions
Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of perception?
Which of the following factors influencing perception might affect a doctor who has been working a 48-hour shift with few meals and few breaks?
Current internal states
Which of the following best defines self-concept?
How you define yourself
Which of the following situations does NOT reflect high self-esteem?
Beth finds it difficult to talk to people in new social settings and does not make good eye contact.
You think the person who cut you off on the highway is rude, but the real reason is that he cut you off because he was rushing to the hospital for the birth of his child. Is this an example of self-serving bias or fundamental attribution error?
Fundamental attribution error
Which one of the following definitions of impression management is most accurate?
Impression management is the use of verbal and nonverbal messages in order shape others' perceptions of the speaker.
You had the opportunity to meet the CEO of the company that you want to work for at a networking social. You were nervous and made a few inappropriate remarks and can see by the look on his face that you've blown it. According to the process for developing effective self-presentation, once you have identified your negative perception, what is the next step?
Set a goal
Edward B. Tylor -1800's
complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
culture reflects the following behaviors about people
Values and beliefs that they share
Lifestyles they lead
Products that they buy
Rules that they follow
culture refers to
behavior, not groups of people
reflect the unique beliefs, ways of thinking, communication patterns and styles, and customs of members of particular groups that exist within the umbrella culture
Co-cultures reflect beliefs within the general culture.
Co-cultures often have very little influence on the way people within those co-cultures behave.
the process of our world becoming ever more connected in economic, political, organizational, and personal terms as transportation and telecommunication systems improve
five primary characteristics of culture and co-cultural memberships that have an affect on human communication:
individualism and collectivism
high context and low context
high power distance and low power distance masculinity and femininity
polychronism and monochronism
values people who are assertive and speak for themselves, independent, and not reliant on others to any great extent
value their membership in their particular in-group to such an extent that they place a greater importance on their role within the group than their role as an individual
When communicators require explicit or clear verbal messages to understand a message, we refer to this as a _____________ orientation to communication
rely more on nonverbal communication than straightforward verbal messages. They understand the power of silence in making a point, and they will rely on the physical setting more often than words to communicate meaning. Allow others to make up their own mind.
high power distance
place a great deal of value on social rank and the status associated with certain occupations or political offices
low power distance
tend to communicate in ways that promote equality and diminish the barriers between people that status and rank create
value competitiveness and achievement, even at the expense of interpersonal relationships. Direct, forceful communication is valued and appreciated.
relationships, compassion, and nurturing are highly valued. Cooperation, listening, and showing empathy are important communication skills
like doing one thing at a time, being punctual, and concentrating fully to meet their commitments. Monochronic people rarely cancel plans, tend to be very structured in their use of time and time lines, and can be highly irritated by interruptions or delays.
tend to like working on multiple things at one time. Their style may seem chaotic and unfocused to a monochronic individual. Polychronic people are flexible in terms of starting times for appointments and deadlines. the border between work or professional time and family or personal time is fluid for them.
the belief that one's own culture and lifestyle are superior to all others.
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary characteristics of culture and co-cultural memberships affecting human communication?
power and lack of power
Which of the following statements about the role of culture in communication is correct?
Communicators in masculine cultures emphasize their expertise and speak assertively.
Which of the following best describes a co-culture?
Examples of co-cultures in the U.S. include Southerners, college students, engineers, the Amish, Denver Broncos fans, Mormons, artists, Marines, and pet owners.
In the Vietnamese-American culture, individuals do not take appointment times literally. Does this describe a monochronism or polychronism culture?
Within a feminine culture, it is acceptable for both men and women to be
supportive and relationship-oriented.
Ethnocentrism refers to the belief that one's own culture and lifestyle are superior to all others. Which of the following is UNTRUE of ethnocentrism and communication styles.
Ethnocentric attitudes do not have an influence on communication styles.
Drew is a native of Ohio. He has accepted a position at his company's headquarters in Austria, where he will be tasked with public speaking engagements to promote his company's services throughout the country. How can Drew adapt his speeches to accommodate Austria's masculine culture?
Include statistics of his company's product or service and provide information on how his company compares to the competition in quarterly sales.
anxious or avoidant of using new media
device that moves messages over distance or through time so that people who are not face-to-face can communicate
digital or networked information and communication technologies that have emerged since the latter part of the twentieth century
operate on digital codes
the connections among devices and the people who use them
skill that allows communicators to figuratively stand in one another's shoes and assume one another's social roles and perspective
involves instant replies and back-and-forth, real-time interaction
occurs outside of the constraints of time and place
capable of facilitating understanding, allow for the exchange of nonverbal information, emotion, and quick feedback
least capable of facilitating understanding, reliant mostly on text and permit little or no exchange of affect, instant feedback, or important nonverbal cues
Mark works for a large technical company. He often creates large files of data that include graphs, pictures, and text. Rather than driving to the office to deliver his work, Mark is able to log on to the company's network and submit his work electronically. Mark is experiencing which truism about new media?
New media have removed the barriers of time and space.
Which new media truism shows how online interactions can be potentially unsafe and dangerous if not approached with caution?
A person may create false identities for the purpose of meeting others.
Which of the following shows how new media can have a negative impact on communication?
Young couples are spending less time together in face to face settings.
When politicians and their staff visit neighborhoods in an attempt to obtain your vote in an election, which type of communication are they using?
Which of the following channels can result in asynchronous communcation?
Sarah needs to inform her team members of a new project that they will be working on. She anticipates that they may have many questions about process and elements of the project. Which of the following criteria is most important for Sarah to consider when choosing the appropriate medium?
Capacity for instant feedback
The main purpose of communication is _____________.
the exchange of ideas
Which of the following is NOT necessary for effective intercultural communication?
Perceiving a message
Which of the following statements does NOT explain why the transactional model is a more accurate model for human communication?
The transactional model assumes there is only one message.
Which of the following will not improve your communication competence?
Decreasing your motivation to communicate
Which of the following statements about selection is NOT correct?
Selective attention describes a tendency to focus on certain information, while at the same time considering all other ideas.
Being confident, warm, or tired affects are examples of which type of perception-influencing factors?
Current internal states
Which statement about self-concept and self-esteem is false?
When an individual perceives another person as having success only due to luck or charity, the individual engages in __________________.
Select the correct statement about self-presentation.
Self-presentation is defined as the strategic development and use of verbal and nonverbal messages that results in others making conclusions about the kind of individual you are.
A strategy should consist of the verbal and nonverbal messages that will help you accomplish your goal of being perceived in a particular way. Nonverbal messages include the following:
Your choice of clothing and mannerisms
Which is a common misconception about culture?
Culture refers to groups of people.
Edward Tylor's definition of culture mainly focused on patterns of common life. Our definition today emphasizes cultural diversity. Which statement about Tylor's society is false?
There were more educated people in the nineteenth century.
A group of people who share common ______ would be considered a general culture because its members are likely to identify with only one such group at a time.
Sally is a 27-year-old female living in Los Angeles. She is still very active in her college sorority, Alpha Phi, is a meat eater, loves country music, reads People magazine religiously, is a yoga and Pilates lover, and bikes 35 miles to work every day. Which of the following statements best describes Sally?
Sally associates herself with other Alpha Phi members, meat eaters, country music fans, and People magazine readers, as well as people who love yoga, biking. and Pilates.
Which statement about globalization is incorrect?
Students study abroad for the sole reason of seeking professional opportunities.
All of the members of Emma's family move away from home when they turn 18. This ends up significantly decreasing their financial dependence on parents. This is an example of a ____________ culture?
Moira is taking a full year to travel around the world. Which of the following statements is correct about her travels?
She needs to refrain from eye contact while in some Asian countries.
Rhonda is traveling around the world for a few months. She is collecting as much information as possible about each culture and its rules. What does she need to know about visiting the island of Hawaii?
She must remove her shoes in a private home as a sign of respect.
Which of the following describes someone who is technophobic?
Joey feels anxious or avoidant of using any type of new media.
Which of the following accurately describes "catfishing"?
Catfish are people who create a false identity or persona on social media for the purposes of meeting and interacting with other people.
New media limits our ability to engage in effective role-taking and accurate perception. Which statement best describes role-taking in communication?
Role-taking is the skill that allows communicators to figuratively stand in one another's shoes and assume one another's social roles and perspective.
Which of the following does not accurately describe asynchronous communication?
While new media is dependent on whether users function in real-time or delayed mode, feedback is quite timely when communication is asynchronous.
Which statement is incorrect regarding message recipients and message context?
In thinking about the intended receivers for your message, always be self-centered in your media choices.
An individual should always consider the recipients and message context. Which statement is incorrect?
It is not necessary to consider whether reliance on new media is a good choice for the context for your message.
Digital media can greatly affect messaging. How can you effectively judge the relationship among you, your receiver, media and the message?
Always look for norms among your social network and within your company.
Consistently evaluate all media and make good selections by examining the richness of media.
Recognize that lean media are the least capable of facilitating understanding, while rich media allow for quick feedback and emotional exchanges.
the best public speaking style
is a conversational one
refers to characteristics of the speaker. trustworthiness, audience's perceptions of the speaker's level of concern for their best interests
three components of ethos
competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism
ability to arouse emotion within the audience
discourse that is supported by logical reasoning, demonstrating, through logical appeals, that what you are speaking about is actually the case.
two categories of logos
inductive and deductive reasoning
begins with specific instances or examples and reasons to either a universal claim or another specific instance
begins with general claims and moves to a specific instance
fallacy of inductive reasoning that comes to a general conclusion based on too few or unrepresentative examples.
When some presents a weak version of an argument in order to refute it and claim victory. it is as though they knock down a straw person rather than a real person.
occurs when a speaker presents only two solutions to a problem, ignoring other solutions either purposefully or out of ignorance
occurs when someone refutes an argument by attacking the person who presented the argument rather than the argument itself
Appeal to misplaced authority
relies on the reputation of an expert in an unrelated field
post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy
i.e.: They sat in a particular arrangement and then the team won, so clearly their seating arrangement was responsible for the win.
Good stories have
-topic of interest and significance to your audience.
-storyline, or plot, that takes place over a period of time, reflecting that most human situations are complex and detailed.
-Elements that make the story concrete, vivid, and memorable; can occur as a result of its content, the language the speaker uses, or the way it is told.
-An appropriate setting; comes to life through the vivid detail the storyteller provides.
-A beginning, a middle, and an end.
-A conflict or dilemma that climaxes at some point and then is usually resolved, with a resolution that listeners could realistically implement.
good stories share the following characteristics:
They are realistic.
They have sustainable value.
They are organized.
They are interactive.
When your public speaking goal involves teaching, that is, helping an audience develop its understanding of a new idea or skill or altering the factual beliefs people have about a topic. i.e. lectures, demonstrations, briefings and status reports, and training or instructional sessions
When your goal is to change someone's opinions, attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. i.e. Sales presentations, motivational speeches, religious talks or sermons, commercial advertising, political speeches, and presentations advocating social change
goal to amuse your listeners, lighten their moods, distract them from a more serious issue or topic, or make them laugh. Also known as "after-dinner speaking,"
All of the following statements are true except for which one?
Attitude has nothing to do with delivering an effective speech.
"All cats are sneaky. Mittens is a cat. Therefore, Mittens must be sneaky." What kind of reasoning is represented by these statements?
An argument that builds upon specific examples to support a general claim utilizes which type of reasoning?
"Every spring, Christine develops a runny nose and itchy eyes. Christine suffers from seasonal allergies."
Which type of reasoning is the speaker of this quote using?
In the public speaking context, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a good story?
They are unorganized.
Rachel begins her presentation with an amusing anecdote on the challenges of sticking to a fitness plan. In the body of the speech, Rachel includes statistics on health issues and even shows a quick video of an exercise class having a good time. Rachel is attempting to do which of the following?
Mix entertaining and informative elements
Josie is giving a presentation of studies on weight-loss methods to the staff at her nutritional therapy clinic to increase the staff's awareness and knowledge of various weight-loss methods. What kind of presentation is she giving?
Valianos is thinking about a topic, and in connecting the topic to the audience, he considers their demographic characteristics as well as their attitudes, previous experiences, needs, and biases. What topic selection guideline is Valianos conducting?
He is analyzing the audience's profile.
There is one main goal when thinking about how to introduce your objectives. What is that goal?
Each element of the beginning of a speech is created to support the speaker-audience-topic connection.
Sullivan is going to be speaking about the different types of student loans that are available to his college classmates. What organization should the body of the speech follow?
Natalia begins her speech with a story about a puppy who is being raised by an irresponsible breeder. She presents the body of her speech, and then she concludes by returning to the story about the puppy and letting her audience know that there is a happy ending: the puppy was adopted by Natalia herself, and the puppy is thriving. What term is used to reflect this type of conclusion?
A conclusion to a speech is only as good as
one that circles back to the introduction
The body of the speech acts as the
bridge to connect the speaker and the audience.
An effective introduction addresses which of the following questions?
Why this topic for this audience?
involves teaching people something that has some basis in fact.
advocates a particular position and attempts to influence listeners to adopt one particular belief or course of action over another because it is superior
An informative speech
is a presentation designed to (a) create, (b) further, or (c) alter the audience's factual beliefs about a topic. In other words, informative presentations have three primary goals.
3 Goals of Informative Speech
1. communicate information that is new knowledge for audience members.
2. further existing knowledge
3. update outdated information or change listeners' factual understanding of a topic.
specifically designed to provide listeners with in-depth knowledge on a particular topic
shorter than an instructional presentation. A brief report represents a highly structured overview of very specific information for the intended audience.
gives how-to advice to an audience relative to a particular topic or activity, and it involves some physical depiction of the subject.
designed to instruct participants, typically in a work-related setting, how to complete a task accurately.
an activity that involves symbolic communication between two or more persons with the intent to change... attitudes, beliefs, and/or behaviors of the receiver[s]
Three goals of persuasion
to change how listeners feel, think, or act.
an individual's consistent feelings of like or dislike toward a particular object, person, concept, or idea
an individual's perception of the truth, or the existence or falsity of something. In other words, what we say we know is true reflects a personal belief.
individual's expectation or plan that he or she will behave in some particular way
Four types of persuasive speeches
argues about the basic identification or classification of a particular thing. In essence, you are arguing that X is or is not Y because of particular evidence, reasons, or rules
argues for the truth or falsity of a given assertion. You should think of yourself as defending your own assertion with more factual support and reasoned argument than your audience.
describes a certain social or political problem and then seeks to lay out the specifics of a solution to that problem.
argues the virtue, accuracy, and soundness of a particular judgment. This judgment will always be based on an underlying principle or value, such as what is right, just, beautiful, peaceful, generous, equitable, etc.
psychological reactance theory
persuasive messages threaten an audience's feeling of freedom to think, believe, and act as they wish.
states that people actually strengthen or reinforce existing beliefs when encouraged to change them.
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
method of structuring and presenting ideas uses time-tested and research-validated logic for persuading audiences in educational, business, and sales situations
Monroe's Motivated Sequence 5 Steps
1. Capture the Audience's Attention
2. Identify Problems or Unfulfilled Needs
3. Propose a Solution (or plan) That Satisfies the Problem(s) (or need)
4. Help the Audience Visualize What Satisfaction Will Mean for Them
5. Give Your Audience an Action Plan
seven communication strategies for avoiding resistance and maximizing persuasiveness
Ask for Small, Gradual Changes
Use a Two-Sided Message With Refutation
Inoculate Against Counterarguments
Focus on Only the Most Important Objections
Use Both Reason and Emotional Appeals
Use Fear Appeals When Appropriate
Deliver Your Message Competently
Two-sided message with refutation
Present both sides of the issue, but refute the validity, accuracy, or defensibility of the opposing side
dismantle any potential objections from your audience, but also those that subsequent speakers may raise.
seek to influence audience members to change because they are scared of the consequences of not doing so
Leesa has to deliver a persuasive speech. She understands that a persuasive speech has similar elements to an informative speech. Which of Leesa's understandings about the two types of speeches is accurate?
While informative speaking does involve persuading your audience to believe a particular set of facts, the line between these types of presentations can be subtle.
Mr. Montag, the new principal at a local middle school, gives a briefing to staff, teachers, and parents to address some unfounded rumors about his past. In this scenario, Mr. Montag wishes to __________ his audience's factual beliefs.
A person's __________ refer to opinions about a specific object or person.
Your university will be sponsoring a speech that addresses how every American citizen should be required to have a background check and undergo training before owning any type of firearm. What type of speech will this be?
A policy speech
Which step is the MOST important in Monroe's Motivated Sequence?
Identify problems or unfulfilled needs.
You attend a presentation that discusses the relationship between sun exposure and skin cancer. The speaker, a well-known dermatologist, not only describes several extreme cases of skin cancer, but also shows numerous graphic slides of patients who have died from skin cancer. This speaker is employing which of the following methods of persuasion?
a verbal reference to your source
presenting someone else's ideas as if they were your own, without giving the source credit
Purpose of Introduction/Steps
1. Capture audience attention
2. Provide listeners with a reason to listen
3. Establish your credibility
4. review your topic and what you plan to share with your audience.
end the body of your speech with your most compelling piece of evidence
some research suggests that leading with your strongest argument is effective because it is attention-grabbing
Deliver Your Presentation Effectively
Be energetic and appropriately enthusiastic
Speak with simplicity.
Use concrete, vivid language and examples.
Use repetition and redundancy
Use nonverbal communication effectively to support the meaning and purpose of your presentation.
Summarize the presentation.
End memorably and motivate your audience.
consist of the entire introduction and conclusion, written out word for word; additionally, they include all of your main points, transitions, examples, and evidence, written out in complete sentences
allows you to glance at key words and phrases, rather than complete sentences, and deliver your presentation in a dynamic, conversational manner
general purpose statement
reveals whether your talk is informative or persuasive and states your presentation topic
follow a clear, straightforward, direct, fact-based approach to organizing a presentation. Step by step, sequential.
interpersonal communication (IPC)
a verbal and nonverbal transaction that takes place between two interdependent individuals within a relationship, which varies in its degree of personal-ness and can be conducted in a variety of contexts or using a variety of media.
those that involve two people)
two people being mutually dependent on one another
our need to feel accepted by and involved with others
Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO)
fulfill three fundamental human needs
the extent to which relationships help us feel competent and confident as individuals, and, by extension, influential over others
openness -a need for others to approve of us, which is an external affirmation of our value and identity
initiating or orientation
earliest period of a new relationship. We use communication to initiate encounters with people we are interested in dating, befriending, working with, or just becoming closer to
the strategic development and use of verbal and non-verbal messages hat result in others making conclusions about the type of individual you are.
the kind that friends feel toward one another based on shared enjoyment of activities and interests
the kind that friends feel toward one another based on shared enjoyment of activities and interests
a way to make contact with the target individual. However, without other evidence that you are trying to connect for the purpose of establishing a relationship, the target individual might not understand your intent
flippant (Least preferred strategy)
opening line - common in attempts to initiate dating relationships
the use of small talk to determine if individuals wan to continue pursuing a relationship
exchange and acquire information that supports a deepening relationship
Developed to help people better understand their relationships with the self and others. Four quadrants: Open, hidden, blind, unknown
a purposive period of communication intended to escalate the relationship into greater intimacy and commitment
the behaviors that partners in interpersonal relationships use to keep their relationships stable, satisfying, and in good repair
a tension that exists between two competing and contradictory, but related, forces.
Incessantly talking about a problem or an issue that is bothering you
jealousy, intimate partner violence, and stalking/bullying
an interpersonal event involving two people, who are in a relationship, and a potentially threatening rival
Intimate partner violence (IPV)
defined as actual or threatened violent crimes against people by their current or former spouses, cohabiting partners, boyfriends, or girlfriends
a course of unwanted, repeated conduct that places another in fear of his or her safety.
involves using the Internet to threaten or communicate in unwanted ways with others
online verbal abuse on social media sites or through instant messaging and email
sending large volumes of junk mail to intended victims
using devices and software to detect the keystrokes that an individual types on his or her personal computer)
widespread use of social media and involves the use of technology to harass, threaten, target, or embarrass another person
a process of receiving, assigning meaning to, and responding to messages
A message that is detailed or characterized by a number of arguments and related evidence might be difficult to follow and comprehend
the state of being exposed to more messages than we can cognitively process at any given time
the constant connections and perpetual linkages one has with others and information via multiple communication modes becomes overwhelming.
preoccupation or psychological noise
Distraction due to one over-focusing on a single task, thought, or message that inhibits effective listening.
internal dialogue we have throughout our lives. Inner voice that has a running commentary on what we do and experience.
senders and receivers adapt to one another and share responsibility for listening effectiveness
mental rehearsal of a message in anticipation of a difficult conversation
taking another's message and restating it in your own words
ability to perceive another's messages through his or her worldview and experiences
involves (a) assessing the other communicator, the context, and the message, and (b) producing a reasoned conclusion about the ideas being shared
a communicator's competence, trustworthiness, and degree of perceived caring toward other communicators relative to the claims he or she is making
universal or dictionary definitions of words that groups agree on
contextual meanings that we associate with words, meanings that often express some kind of value beyond the commonly agreed upon definition
a polite and pleasant expression designed to substitute for a term that the sender believes lacks social acceptability
study of body movements, including posture, gestures, and facial expressions
nonverbal movements that substitute for words and verbalizations. Holding one finger up = one minute
movements that either accompany or reinforce the meaning of a verbal code. yes and no head movements.
nonverbal movements that reveal emotion. Slumped shoulders.
movements that communicators engage in, sometimes unconsciously, to relieve stress and anxiety. Clicking pen.
ways in which humans use and manage the space around them as a way of shaping meaning
Up to 18 in around you
18 in to 4 feet
greater than 12 feet
the ways in which communicators use time and the messages they communicate as a result of how they manage their time
The use of touch in communication
this category of nonverbal behavior refers to uses of the voice other than to express words and phrases.
ornaments and adornments they display on or around their physical person
a particular type of group that is characterized by its cohesiveness, carefully selected membership, goal-orientation, high performance, and synergy
the "extra energy" created by a high-performing team when it interacts and functions well, distinguishes teams from groups in an important way
represents the larger environment in which a group operates, and its rules, history, norms, and communication climate.
refers to a team's overwhelming motivation to agree and reach consensus—and failure to critically evaluate the task or alternative plans and solutions
refers to situations in which one or more members exert little or no effort to the team's work
bad apple effect
poisonous impact of having just one ineffective team member
perceived when team members believe that an individual member (whether that person is the formal, designated leader of the team or not) has the potential for either providing a positive reward (positive reinforcement) or removing something negative (negative reinforcement) in exchange for their participation and cooperation
team members' perceptions that a particular member has the ability to punish them for not cooperating or complying as participants with his or her requests
assigned to people because of their job, position, or assignment.
a team member's ability to influence others' thoughts or behaviors because other members perceive him or her as competent, credible, and knowledgeable in the subject area
involves a person's ability to motivate and influence others because he or she is well liked, respected, and admired.
reflected in an individual's ability to acquire and share valuable information.
a model that illustrates how some leaders inspire, energize, engage, and motivate teammates to excel within the team context in committed, passionate ways
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