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Acidic Stains

Are anionic, which means that the chromophore exhibits a negative charge and therfore has a strong affinity for the positive constituents of the cell.

Basic Stains

Are catioic, because the chromophore exhibits a positive charge and therefore has a strong affinity for the negative constituents of the cell.

Crystal Violet

This violet stain is used first and stains all cells purple

Grams Iodine

THis reagent serves as a mordant, a substance that increases the cells' affinity for a stain

95% Ethyl Alcohol

This reagent serves a dual function as a protien- dehydrating agent and as a lipid solvent


This is the final reagent, used to stain red those cells that have been previously decolorized


This is, some cells will appear purple, whil others will appear pink

Vegetative Cells

Organisms that have the capacity to exist either as metabolically active


Highly resistant, metabolically inactive cell types


Surrounded by impreviouslayers called spore coats


The endospore is released from the degenerating vegetative cell and becomes an independent cell

Malachite Green

Unlike most vegetative cell types that stain by common procedures, the spore, because of its imperveous coat, will not accept the primary stain easily


Once the spore accepts the malachite green, it cannot be declorized by tap water, which removes only the excess primary stain


Glycocalyx composed of repeating units of organic chemicals firmly attached to the cell surface

Carbol Fuchsin

A red phenolic stain that is soluble in the lipodial materials that constitue the major portion of the mycobacterial cell wall, does penetrate these bacteria and is rertained

Methylene Blue

This is used as the final reagent to stain previously decolorized cells

Brightfield Microscope

This instrument conains two lens systems for magnyfing specimens: The ocular lens in the eyepiece and the objective lens located in the nose piece


Microbiology is a science that studies living organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye


A fixed platform with an opening in the center allows the passage of light from an illuminating source below to the lens system above the stage


The light source is positioned in the base of the instrument


This component is found directly under the stage and contains two sets of the lens

Body Tube

Above the stage and attached to the arm

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