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Physics Regents Review
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Gravity
Terms in this set (121)
Scalar
Distance
Speed
Mass
Temperature
Energy
Power
Resistance
Charge
Vector
Displacement
Velocity
Acceleration
Momentum
Force
Weight
Magnetic field
Electric charge
1 meter
3 1/3 feet
1 Newton
Small apple
1 kilogram
2.2 lbs
Mass of average physics student
50 kg 110 pounds
Mass
Remains constant
Weight
Is a force
Maximum resultant vector
When angle between vectors is 0
Minimum resultant vector
When angle between vectors is 180
Vx=
Vcos0
Vy=
Vsin0
X and y components are
ALWAYS INDEPENDENT
Falls/drop
Vi=0 a=g=9.8
Newton's first law
Object at rest stays and rest and an object in motions stays in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton's second law
F=ma
Acceleration
Forces are unbalanced
Net force /= 0
Object is NOT in equilibrium
Net force
Fa-Ff
Square law
Double time, 4x distance
Displacement v time graph
Displacement: point
Velocity: slope
+ slope: forward
-slope: backwards
Steep slope: fast
Gentle slope: slow
No slope: stationary
Velocity v time graphs
Displacement: area under curve
Velocity: point
Acceleration: slope
+slope: +acceleration
-slope: -acceleration
Projectile at max height
Vx= constant
Vy= 0
ax= 0
ay= -9.8
Time at max height (projectile)
1/2 total time of flight
dx at max height (projectile)
1/2 total dx
For projectile motion
ax=0
ay=g=-9.8
For object dropped: Viy=0
Newton's third law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Inertia
Resistance of an object to a change in its motion DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE MASS
Force of Friction
uFn
u static is
Always greater than u kinetic
Ways to reduce friction
Change material
Add lubrication
Add rollers
Momentum
p=mv
Impulse
Change in momentum
Law of conservation of momentum
The total momentum in a system is conserved
inelastic collision
Objects stick together, momentum is conserved, but some kinetic energy is lost
elastic collision
one in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy
centripetal force
Directed toward the center of the circle
centripetal acceleration
Directed toward the center of the circle
v^2/r
Velocity (Circular motion)
Tangent to the circular path
Newton's universal law of gravitation
Every body in the universe exerts a force of attraction on every other body
FG=
Gm1m2/r^2
Universal Gravitational Constant
6.67 x 10^-11 Nm^2/kg^2
Gravity is always an
Attractive force
conservation of energy
Energy can never be created or destroyed it can only change forms
Et=
PEg+KE+Q
Conservation of energy in a pendulum
Between the top and the bottom of the path there is a combination of PEg and KE but total mechanical energy remains the same
work energy theorem
The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object
X (in hookes law)
The amount a spring is stretched or elongated
Fs v x graph
Area = PEs
Longitudinal wave
transverse wave
Cycles
Amount of repetitive actions
Frequency
Cycles per second (Hz)
Period
Seconds per cycle (s)
Amplitude
Height of a wave
Crest
Highest point of a wave
Trough
Lowest point of a wave
Phase
Points on a wave that have the same exact amplitude and direction
Wavelength
The length of a complete wave or distance between points in phase
Velocity (wave)
Lambda times frequency
Pulse
One single vibratory disturbance
Law of Superposition
Two waves can occupy the same space and combine algebraically to form a new wave
constructive interference
amplitudes add together
destructive interference
Waves destroy each other, the crest of one wave interferes with the trough of another
Standing wave
Two identical waves moving in opposite deprecation creating constructive and destructive interference
Nodes
Points of zero amplitude on a standing wave
Antinodes
The positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur.
Resonance
The natural frequency of an object
Sympathetic resonance
Two objects with the same frequency causes to vibrate or make a sound
Beats
2 objects interfere with slightly different frequencies creating a pattern of constructive and destructive interference
high frequency
high pitch
large amplitude
loud sound
Doppler effect
An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
Electromagnetic waves
A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space.
Polarization
Only one direction if vibration is allowed through a barrier
Reflection
0i=0r
diffuse reflection
reflection of light from a rough surface
Diffraction
The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
Refraction
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
Charge
Measured in coulombs
1 elementary charge
1.6x10^-19C
All charges must be multiple of
1 elementary charge
Coulomb's Law
F=K q₁*q₂/r², magnitude of force between two charges
Positive charge
negative charge
Two positive charges
Negative and positive charges
Two negative charges
Parallel plates
Rules for field lines
Never cross
Lines closer together=stronger
Always perpendicular
Ohms law
V=IR
Resistance of a wire
R=ρL/A
ρ=constant of resistance
L=length
A=area
Wire with low resistance
Short, thick, and cold
Wire with high resistance
Long, thin, and hot
Battery
Provides electric potential
Current
Moves around the circuit from + to -
Resistor
Resists the flow of current, using the current to power the object
Ammeter
Measures the current
LOW RESISTANCE
IN SERIES
Voltmeter
Measure potential difference
HIGH RESISTANCE
IN PARALLEL
1 eV
1.6 x 10^-19J
North and South
North and north
One bar magnet
horseshoe magnet
Electric fields and magnetic fields are
Perpendicular to each other
Left Hand Rule for Conductors
If given the electron current, with your left hand point your thumb towards the direction of current. Curling your fingers will indicate the direction of the magnetic field
Electromagnet
Wires are connected to a voltage source are looped around a conductive material
Increase strength of electromagnet
Good conductor
Increase current
Add more loops
Light as a wave evidence
Diffraction
Interference and superposition
Doppler effect
*Transports energy
Light as a particle evidence
Conservation or energy
Photoelectric effect
*transports energy
photoelectric effect
The emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal
Planck's constant
6.626 x 10^-34
ground state
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
Ionization
The amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom
emits a photon
when an atomic electron goes from a high-energy state to a low-energy state, it
Energy can be used to
Create mass
Mass can
Be converted into energy
Leptons
Light particles- truly elementary (ie electron, neutrino, bosons)
Hadrons
Heavy particles such as protons and neutrons
Baryons and mesons
Made up of quarks
Baryons
3 quarks
Mesons
Quark and antiquark
;