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72 terms

Meteorology Test

STUDY
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climate
average precipitation, temperature and winds over a long period of time
tilt on axis
23.5 degrees
el nino
unusually warm water in the Pacific
la nina
unusually cold water in the Pacific
effects of el nino
severe rain and drought
effects of la nina
severe winters and hurricanes
short term climate change
la nina and el nino
global warming
gradual increase of earth's temperature
greenhouse gases
trap energy in the atmosphere
greenhouse effect
Earth's atmosphere traps solar energy
levels of carbon dioxide
increase global temperature
hole in the ozone
created by chloroflourocarbons
chloroflourocarbons
chemicals used in air conditioners, refrigerators and aerosols
result of ozone depletion
increased UV radiation
UV radiation
causes skin cancer and eye damage
use of CFCs
reduced in 1990 and eliminiated in 2010
fossil fuels
formed from the remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago
sustainable practices
activities that benefit society without degrading the environment
unsustainable practices
activities that benefit society but degrade the environment
consumption
the amount of resources we use
coal
cheapest and dirtiest fossil fuel
examples of non renewable resources
coal, oil, natural gas, petroleum, gasoline
examples of renewable resources
wind, solar, water, geothermal
nuclear power
efficient but produces dangerous waste
fossil fuel formation
takes millions of years to form
uranium
used in nuclear reactors
Climate
The characteristic of the atmosphere for a region on Earth over a longer time period (seasons, years etc.)
Global Dimming
This is where less solar radiation reaches the earth because of increased cloud and/or gas cover in the atmosphere
Greenhouse Effect
The process of gases being trapped inside earth's atmosphere and causing the earth to become warmer than it naturally would be.
Greenhouse Gases
Gases that are present in the greenhouse effect. Ex: Water vapor, CO2, CH4, and CFCs
Positive Feedback
Self-Enhancing in the warming effect; Makes it worse, this increase in air pollution leads to another increase and another =global warming
Negative Feedback
An increase which leads to a decrease. Self-regulation. GOOD.
Coriolis Effect
This effect deflects wind in a pattern creating 3 cells of air circulation in each hemisphere. Atmospheric circulation works with the tilt of the earth and what is going on with the latitudes and etc of the planet. It depends what area you are at as to what pressure level there will be. There is a total of six different zones of circulation.
Troposphere
This is the lower part of Earth's atmophere where weather takes place.
Stratosphere
This is above the troposhere and this is where atmospheric waming takes place with inceases in altitude.
Troposphere
Inner most layer of atmosphere; 75% of weight
Stratosphere
Second layer of atmosphere; Filters 95% of UV rays
Primary Air Pollutant
Chemical added by humans or natural causes
Secondary Air Pollutant
Chemical produced when primary pollutant reacts with air
Chloroflouracarbons
CFCs
Ozone
Protects the Earth from UV rays
Particulate Matter
Complex mixture of chemicals that is harmful to one's health
Nitrogen Oxide
Air pollutant
Sulfur Oxide
Air pollutant
Environmental Protection Agency
Responsible for managing federal efforts to control pollution
Clean Air Acts
In charge of protecting the ozone layer
Temperature Inversion
A condition in which the upper air temperature increases rather than decreases
Industrial Smog
Pollution from industries
Photochemical Smog
A complex mixture of air pollutants
Acid Deposition
Falling of acids into atmosphere
Greenhouse Gas
Traps heat
Greenhouse Effect
Warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
Montreal Protocol
Cut emission of CFCs into atmosphere by 35%
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas
Radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
Energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place or object to another
Rate of change
describes how a quantity is changing over time
Solar energy
energy from the sun
Radioactive decay
release of nuclear particles and energy from unstable atomic nuclei
Energy
The ability to do work or cause change.
Potential energy
stored energy
Kinetic energy
Energy in motion
Electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves.
Spectroscope
an insrument with a prism used to find out the elements of a star
Absolute zero
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
Reflection
the action of a wave bouncing off an object
Intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude
State of matter
a physical property that describes matter as a solid, liquid, or gas
Specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius
Phase change
a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition
Fluid
A ______ is any substance that has no definite shape and has the ability to flow