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define anti-depressant

a medication administered to prevent or relieve depression

define anxiety

a felling of apprehension or uneasiness, a fundamental human emotion that produces bodily reactions that prepare us for "fight or flight", is anticipatory; the dreded event or situation has not yet occurred.

define phobia

a strong,persistant and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation.

fear is

a basic emotion

what is locus ceruleus

a small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions, many of its neurons use norepinephrine

define benzodiazepines

anti-anxiety drugs, preferred medications used to calm and reduce anxiety in people.

define generalized anxiety disorder

disorder characterized by persistant, high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over many life circumstaces that are present on more days than not for more than six months.

define agoraphobia

An anxiety disorder indicated by a marked and persistent fear of being in places or situations from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing.

define obsessive compulsive disorder characteristics

obsessions(intrusive, repetitive thoughts or images that produce anxiety). or compulsions (the need to perform acts or to dwell on thoughts to reduce anxiety).

define post traumatic stress disorder

A severe anxiety that develops after experiencing a traumatic event (rape, war, natural disaster, abusive childhood, near fatal accident); symptoms: feelings of helplessness, flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and or emotional numbness

define anxiety disorders

Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.

define panic attacks

are experianced as intense fear accompanied by symptoms such as a pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath,or fear of losing control or dying.

define the (types) of panic attacks

1.situationally bound attacks. 2. situationally predisposed attacks. 3.unexpected or uncued attacks.

define panic disorder

Recurrent unexpected panic attacks. At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month of 1 of the following: persistent concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications of the attack, significant change in behavior related to the attacks. Agoraphobia may or may not be present

what is malingering

is intentional production of false or faking symptoms motivated by external incentives, such as obtaining compensation or drugs, avoiding work or military duty, or evading criminal prosecution.

what is facticious

when someone intentionally does something to produce symptoms in self and others.

what is fugue

a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else

what are differant the types of dissociative amnesia

1.localized: all memory for a short time. 2. selective: loss of details about an incident. 3.systemized: selected TYPES OF INFORMATION. 4. continuous: inability to recall ANY events from a specific time until the present. 5.generalized: a complete loss of memory of the individuals entire life.

define body dysmorphic disorder

preoccupation with an imagined or exaggerated defect in physical appearance

define hypochondriasis

a condition characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance

what is conversion disorder

demonstrates physical problems or impairments in sensory or motor functions controlled by the voluntary nervous system- such as paraysis, loss of feeling, and deficits in sight or hearing- suggeting a neurological disorder but with no underlying organic cause.

what are dissociative disorders

a group of disorders including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative identity disorder, and depesonalization disorder, all of which involve some sort of dissociation, or separation, of a part of the persons consciousness, memory, or identity.

what is somatization disorder

somatoform disorder in which the person dramatically complains of a specific symptom such as nausea, difficulty swallowing, or pain for which there is no real physical cause

dissociative identity disorder is

formally known as multiple-personality disorder.

what are somatoform disorders

include somatization, conversion, pain, and body dysmorphic disorders, as well as hypochondriasis

what is localized amnesia

a person remembers nothing that happened during a specific period, most commonly the first few hours or days following some highly traumatic event

what is selective amnesia

Inability to recall only certain incidents associated with a traumatic event

what is systemized amnesia

the loss of memory for a certain category of information

what is generalized amnesia

Inability to recall anything that has happened during the individual's entire lifetime - total loss of memory

what is continuous amnesia

an inability to recall any events that have occurred between a specific time in the past and the present time

two parts of memory are

short and long





what is the origin of dissociative identity disorder

severe psychological trauma

how authentic are reports of formally repressed memories

at this point its not clear on how many cases of genuine "repressed momories" exist, or whether the phenomenon exists at all.

define stess psychosomatic

real physical disorder brought on by a psychological stressor

what are stressors

external events or situations that place a physical or psychological demand on a person

what is stress

is an internal psychological or physiological response to a stressor

define psychophysiological disorder

any physical disorder that has a strong psychological basis or component

what is sudden death syndrome

unexpected abrupt death that seems to have no specific physical basis.

what is acute stress disorder

characterized by the development of severe anxiety, dissociative, and other symptoms that occurs within one month after exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor.

define dissociation

involves a disruption in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception and may be trancient or chronic.

anxiety is a blend of what?

thoughts and feelings characterized by uncontrollability and unpredictability over potentially adverse life events.

people with anxiety have the inability to what?

cope and be calm

anxiety ranges from?

mild to severe

what anxiety effects over all?

1. quality of life. 2. day to day tasks completion

what are the major types of anxieties disorders?

panic(fear based), panic attacks, phobias(generalized,specific,) OCD, acute stress disorder,and PTSD.

what are the major players of dissociative disorders?

identity, memory, and conscienceness.

people with DID show signs of?

two or more distinct or unique personalities.

etiology means?

reasons, causes, and origins.

what are the characteristics of acute stress disorder?

anxiety and dissociative symptoms that occur within a month after exposure to a traumatic stressor.

PTSD is characterized by what?

anxiety,dissociaative, and other symptoms that last for more than a month and that occur as a result of exposure to extreme trauma.

Norman Cousins is credited with suggesting that ______ can improve health.


4 models of stress and illness are?

biological, pyschological,social, and socioculture.

laughter releases what?


models(general adaptation)

1.alarm-vulnerability. 2. resistance-defense. 3. exaustion-symptom-sickness reappears.

behavior and the immune system do what?

work togather

even positive changes in life are?


stress is an?

internal resposnse

stressors are an?

external event

examples of psychophysiological disorder include?

coronary heart disease,hypertention,migraines, tention, cluster headaches,and astma.

define personality disorder

A chronic, inflexible, maladaptive pattern of perceiving, thinking, and behaving that seriously impairs an individual's ability to function in social or other settings.

define personality type

silimar to being a trait, but instead of being a dimension, a type is a category that is believed to represent the whole of persons characteristics

personality trait

the dimensions of a persons characteristics or behavior., or parts.

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