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Organizational Behavior - OBC1
Terms in this set (130)
Race represents an external dimension of diversity.
Internal dimensions of diversity contain an element of control or choice.
Current day minority groups do not experience their own glass ceiling.
The Family & Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires employers to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons, including childbirth, adoption, or family emergency.
Team performance is positively related to a team's diversity in gender, ethnicity, age and education.
__________ is an example of an external dimension of diversity.
Affirmative action is __________ driven.
All of the following are tips for women to advance to senior positions and career success except:
Don't boast about accomplishments
Which of the following is NOT one of the Generic Action Options for handling diversity according to R Roosevelt Thomas Jr.?
Which of the following Generic Action Options for handling diversity states that all diverse people will learn to fit in or become like the dominant group?
Organizational culture is the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions held by a group that determines how the group perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.
Enacted values represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization
A clan culture has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control.
Employees working in organizations with hierarchical or market-based cultures reported lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but have greater intention to keep their jobs.
The encounter phase is the last stage in the organizational socialization process.
___________ is a long term plan outlining actions needed to achieve a desired result.
Which of the following is an example of a psychosocial function of mentoring?
In the __________ phase of the organizational socialization process, employees begin to learn what the organization is really like. This phase begins when the employment contract is signed.
A __________ developmental network is composed of a few weak ties from one social system such as an employer or professional association.
The __________ network is the strongest type of developmental network.
Self-esteem is a belief about one's own self-worth based on an overall self-evaluation
Complex, challenging and autonomous jobs tend to enhance perceived self-efficacy while boring, tedious jobs tend to lower perceived self-efficacy.
Low self-monitors are sometimes criticized for being on their own planet and insensitive to others.
Among the Big Five personality dimensions, conscientiousness had the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance.
People with proactive personalities tend to experience less individual, team, and organizational success
An internal locus of control should be tempered with ___________ so that healthy characteristics such as self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-assessment don't turn into over-confidence, narcissism, and stubbornness.
__________ occurs when organizational values or beliefs become part of one's self-identity
Regarding the Big Five personality dimensions, a person scoring high on __________ is outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive
_________ is a goal congruent emotion
is a goal incongruent emotion
Values are relatively unstable and do not influence our behaviour.
The discrepancy models of job satisfaction propose that satisfaction is determined by the extent to which the characteristics of a job allow an individual to fulfill his or her needs.
Research on the correlates of job satisfaction discovered a strong, negative relationship between perceived stress on the job and job satisfaction.
Interpersonal value conflict occurs when values espoused and enacted by the organization collide with employees' personal values.
Value congruence is associated with positive job outcomes such as career success, satisfaction and lower turnover intentions.
More women in the paid workforce, more dual-income families, more single working parents, and an aging population that gives mid-career employees day care or elder care responsibilities are all factors serving to increase
work/family life conflict.
Leon Festinger theorized that people will seek to __________ through one of three main methods: changing one's attitude, behavior or both; belittling the importance of the inconsistent behavior; or finding consonant elements that are more important.
reduce cognitive dissonan
The __________ is the feelings or emotions one has about an object or situation
According to the __________ model of job satisfaction, satisfaction is a function of how "fairly" an individual is treated and occurs when one's perception that work outcomes, relative to inputs, compare favorably with a significant other's outcomes/inputs
A(n) __________ represents an employee's beliefs about what he or she is entitled to receive in return for what he or she provides to the organization
In the four-phase process of social information processing, the encoding stage involves storing information in long-term memory.
A 65 year-old university student would be a salient stimulus.
The contrast effect is the tendency to evaluate people or objects by comparing them with characteristics of recently observed people or objects
According to Kelley, people make causal attributions after gathering information about three dimensions of behavior: consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency.
The fundamental attribution bias represents a person's tendency to attribute another individual's behavior to his or her personal characteristics, as opposed to situational factors.
According to the social information processing model, the __________ stage involves depositing information in long-term memory.
storage and retention
The __________ perceptual error represents the tendency to form an overall impression about a person and then use that impression to bias ratings about the person.
According to Kelley's model of attribution, __________ means that an individual has performed the task in question in a significantly different manner than he or she has performed other tasks.
According to one expert, all of the following are recommendations for designing an effective web page:
Images in the middle of the page can present an obstacle course, Surfers connect will with images of people looking directly at them, Individuals read Web pages in F pattern, People respond to pictures that provide useful information.
The __________ reflects one's tendency to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure.
Maslow viewed esteem as the highest step in his proposed hierarchy of needs.
The need for affiliation is defined as the desire to spend time in social relationships and activities.
Designing jobs according to the principles of scientific management tends to increase efficiency and productivity, but also leads to simplified and repetitive jobs.
According to Frederick Herzberg, hygiene factors are job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction
Horizontal loading consists of giving employees more responsibility by taking on tasks normally performed by their supervisors
In Maslow's need hierarchy, the __________ need is the most basic need, involving having enough food, air, and water to survive.
According to Herzberg's motivator-hygiene model, which of the following is a motivator?
Which of the following is not one of the key motivational approaches to job design discussed in the text?
According to the job characteristics model, __________ represents the extent to which an employee receives direct and clear information about how effectively he or she is performing the job.
Distributive justice is defined as
The extents to which people feel fairly treated when procedures are implemented
Research indicates that employees with little tenure are more likely to seek feedback than long-tenured employees.
Personal feelings of self-esteem are an example of an extrinsic reward
Rewarding an employee based on his or her tenure is an example of a reward based on nonperformance criteria.
Hourly pay is an example of a fixed interval reinforcement schedule
According to the guidelines for SMART goals, the more vague the goal the more effective it is.
Money is an example of a(n) __________ reward
Distributing rewards based on how well an employee cooperates with other employees is an example of the __________ distribution criteria
performance/actions and behaviors
Reflexively withdrawing one's hand from a hot stove is an example of
You decide to get rid of your boyfriend or girlfriend by refusing to answer his/her phone calls. You are using a(n) __________ strategy to end the relationship.
Employees with a clear _______ understand the organization's strategic goals and know what actions they need to take, both individually and as team members.
Line of sight
A flight attendant crew is an example of a project team
One of the five steps in the evolution of a team is when accountability becomes very individualized rather than collective accountability.
The three components of effective teamwork are cooperation, trust, and cohesiveness.
Instrumental cohesiveness is a sense of group togetherness based on mutual dependency needed to get the job done.
Researchers concluded that competition is superior to cooperation in promoting achievement and productivity.
According to Management professor/consultant Fernando Bartolomé, all of the following except which are good guidelines to follow in building and maintaining trust.
Respect, Predictability, Communication, Support
A baseball team is an example of a(n) __________ team.
According to the model of work team effectiveness presented in Figure 11-1, performance and viability are both
team effectiveness criteria
Which of the following is a typical managerial mistake leading to team failure?
The team tries to do too much too soon.
One way managers can enhance socio-emotional cohesiveness is by
encouraging interaction and cooperation.
According to the rational model of decision making, managers are completely objective and possess complete information necessary to make a decision.
Satisficing is associated with the rational model of decision making.
Tacit knowledge is intuitive and is acquired by having considerable experience and expertise at a task or job.
The Garbage Can Model assumes that organizational decision making is a sloppy and haphazard process.
Having different individuals make the initial and subsequent decisions about a project is one way to reduce escalation of commitment.
People who have a __________ decision-making style have a low tolerance for ambiguity and are oriented toward task and technical concerns when making decisions.
Ethical decision making frequently involves trade-offs, and a ______helps managers to navigate through them.
One disadvantage of group-aided decision making is that it can result in
Which of the following was not discussed in the text as being a group problem solving technique?
Within the creative process, the __________ stage involves unconsciously mulling over information and making remote associations, all the while engaging in normal daily activities.
Ideally, an organization should experience no conflict.
A day off with pay that occurs one time only intended to allow the employee to recommit to the organization's values and mission is known as the dialectic method.
The devil's advocacy method of stimulating functional conflict involves assigning one person the role of critic.
The obliging (smoothing) style of handling dysfunctional conflict is appropriate for complex issues where the chance of misunderstanding is high.
The nondisclosure negotiation tactic involves partial disclosure of facts, failure to disclose a hidden fact, failure to correct the opponents' misperceptions, and concealment of the negotiator's own position.
When a situation is characterized by __________, managers should anticipate conflict.
extreme time pressure
__________ is defined as conflict that raises different opinions regardless of the personal feelings of those involved.
A major drawback of the __________ method of stimulating functional conflict is that "winning the debate" may become more important than arriving at the best solution.
The __________ style of handling dysfunctional conflict involves either passive withdrawal from the problem or active suppression of the issue
The primary strength of the __________ style of handling dysfunctional conflict is that it has a longer lasting impact because it deals with the underlying problem rather than merely with symptoms. It's primary weakness is that it is very time consuming.
The "exchange" influence tactic involves getting others to support your effort to persuade someone to your point of view.
Conclusions from a meta-analysis suggest ingratiation (making the boss feel good) can slightly improve your performance appraisal results and make your boss like you significantly more.
Personalized power is directed at helping oneself for the sake of personal aggrandizement.
According to French and Raven, an individual is using expert power when his or her charismatic personality is the reason for the compliance of others.
According to your textbook, "participation" is the highest degree of empowerment.
The __________ influence tactic involves getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.
__________ power is directed at helping others.
Threats of punishment and actual punishment give an individual __________ power over others.
Along the continuum of employee empowerment, __________ occurs when managers and followers jointly make decisions.
Political behaviour and maneuvering is often triggered by uncertainty. Which of the following is not a source of uncertainty that may trigger such actions?
Unclear measures of performance, Any change taking place in the organization, High levels of competition among individuals or groups, Organizational objectives that are not clearly spelled out.
Generally speaking, the more narrow the span of control in an organization, the higher the organization's administrative costs.
The modular structure overlays a vertical and with a horizontal structure which results in two command structures - functional and divisional.
A learning organization is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.
Whether or not an organization meets or exceeds its goals is one way to judge the effectiveness of an organization.
One of the benefits of innovation identified in the Model of Innovation was improving on services and products the organization already has
__________ refers to the idea that each employee should report to only one manager.
The Unity of command principle
Which of the following is identified as an early warning sign of decline in the text?
Effective communication if decreased, Goals are not clear and decision benchmarks are not present, Administrative procedures become a burden and are cumbersome,
A synonym for the term "innovation" in the context of organizational innovation would be:
None of the above are correct.
When measuring organizational effectiveness, the __________ approach is appropriate when powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization.
Which of the following is a characteristic of mechanistic organizations?
Top-down communication patterns
Hardiness refers to a personality trait that allows a person to neutralize stress by perceptually or behaviorally transform negative stressors into positive challenges.
According to the typology of change, innovative change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry.
In Lewin's change model, the "unfreezing" stage involves getting employees to become dissatisfied with the old way of doing things.
A company's strategic plan outlines the organization's long-term direction and actions necessary to achieve planned results
Research in the area of resistance to change revealed that high levels of self esteem were negatively associated with resistance to change
Which of the following was not mentioned as a stress reduction technique in the discussion in the text?
Which of the following is not a reason why employees resist change?
__________ is a commonly used method to overcome resistance to change in situations where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power.
According to the Model of Occupational Stress, __________ is an example of a group-level stressor
A(n) __________ coping strategy consists of using methods such as relaxation, meditation, medication, or exercise to manage stress.
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