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BioL 251 Exam 2 NSC, Summer 2018
Terms in this set (48)
the study of heredity
all genetic material of a cell
DNA + Protein =
largest molecule in biology
singular circular loop
multiple and linear
fundamental unit of heredity; responsible for a given trait
can code for proteins, RNA, & gene expression
all types of genes for gentic makeup
genotype + environment
The different bases in DNA and RNA and the bonding pairs.
pairs with cytosine (C)
DNA: pairs with thymine (T)
RNA: pairs with uracil (U)
structure of an individual nucleotide: Phosphate, sugar, nitrogen base.
~5 carbon sugar - deoxyribose
~Nitrogenous base(A,G,T,C) (covalent bond sugar phosphate backbone)
~1 sugar to 2 phosphates @ 5' & 3' C
~purines: A & G - double rings
~pyrimidines: C&T/U - single rings
Double strand; Deoxyribose sugar
Single strand; ribose sugar
Why DNA replication is said to be semi-conservative?
One strand of the parent double helix is conserved in each new DNA molecule. (1 daughter + 1 parent)
*Always making a copy from the original
leading strand versus the lagging strand and what it means that the complimentary strands are said to be antiparallel
Leading: 5′ to 3′ direction
Lagging: 5′ to 3′ direction, in short segments(okazaki fragments)
direction is anti parellel as its overall direction is 3' to 5'
DNA Replication & major enzymes in replication: Helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase III, DNA polymerase I and Ligase
Exact duplicate of DNA & involves 30 different enzymes
~Helicase: unwinds & unzips
~RNA polymerase: creates Primase(allows DNA polymerase to attach)
~DNA polymerase III: Makes copy of DNA; only works 5' to 3'
~DNA polymerase I: removes RNA primers to end synthesizing process
~Ligase: covalent bonds to bind DNA and works in repairs
Know the difference between Transcription and Translation in the expression of genes
Transcription: DNA converted to RNA
Translation: RNA converted to protein
Understand that codons are composed of groups of three nucleotides and that a codon codes for each specific amino acid. This code is redundant.
triplet of nucleotides
determines proteins primary structure
Redundant, but not ambiguous: can occur in various ways to have the same result, but end result will never change
Know the role of messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and how they interact in protein synthesis.
(mRNA) - carries DNA message through complementary copy
(tRNA) - transcribed from DNA
carries specific amino acids to ribosomes
(rRNA) - component of ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs
Understand that eukaryotic cells have introns and exons in DNA and how these sections must be modified before mRNA can be translated.
interons: (noncoding DNA) dont code for proteins have to be spliced out of final mRNA transcript
Exons: code for proteins
Understand how gene regulation can work and the difference between an Inducible Operon and a Repressible Operon.
gene regulation: genes regulated to be active only when necessary via operons
Operon: set of genes regulated as a single unit
Inducible: turned on by a substrate; catabolic and produced when needed
repressible/LAC: off by default and initiated by inducer
Understand what a mutation is and the differences between substitution and frameshift mutations.
change in phenotype due to change in genotype
substitution/missense: change in a single amino acid
frameshift: when the reading frame is altered; letter added or removed
worst kind; deadly
Know the difference between the types of transmission of genetic material between bacteria: conjugation, transformation and transduction
Conjugation - transfer of a plasmid or chromosomal fragment from a donor cell to a recipient cell via a direct connection
Transformation - chromosome fragments from a lysed cell are accepted by a recipient cell; the genetic code of the DNA fragment is acquired by the recipient
Transduction - bacteriophage (Virus) serves as a carrier of DNA from a donor cell to a recipient cell
Generalized - random fragments picked up
Specialized - a highly specific part of the host genome is regularly incorporated into the virus
Know the type of bond between the nucleotides and at what temperature it denatures and separates.
weak hydrogen bonds
90C - 95C
Understand what restriction endonucleases are, how specific they are and how they recognize where to cut nucleotides (palindromes).
produce restriction fragments and recognize palindromes
Understand that restriction endonucleases produce fragments of genetic material called restriction fragments and how these different lengths can be useful in analysis of the genetic code.
restriction endonucleases are specific to a single sample
can be iseful in detection of genetic diseases and DNA confirmation/analysis for criminal cases
The basic process of how the southern blot works to separate restriction fragments of different lengths.
Forces DNA through by electric shock to measure length of fragments and distance traveled
Understand the process of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and its significance in genetic analysis.
Makes multiple copies
Know the definition and implications of recombinant DNA.
splicing and recombining DNA to create new genetic material
Understand what genetically modified organisms (GMO) are and how this technology impacts agriculture, medicine and basic research.
GMOs: products of recombinant DNA
reduces need for pesticides, synthetic medicine, and future growth
Know the levels of relative resistance that microbes have against control (High Relative Resistance to Low Relative Resistance).
relative resistance: how easy it is to kill
High: endospores, prions
low: fungi & vegetative
Know the definition of cell death in a clinical sense.
failure to reproduce even when in its own optimal environment
Definitions of levels of microbial control (Sterilization, Bacteriostatic, Bactericide ect).
sterilization: kills everything
Bacteriostatic: reduces/ slows growth
Bactericide: kills microbe
Understand the difference between Narrow - spectrum and Broad - spectrum drugs and what it means for a drug to be Selectively Toxic.
Narrow: specific attacks; select microbes
Broad: large scale; multiple microbes with common metabolic pathways
Understand the different factors involved that affect the death rate of microbes
time of exposure, numbers present, Temp and pH of environment(relative resistance), activity level of agent used(mode of action)
Know generally how antimicrobial agents target the microbes (cell wall, cell membrane, protein and nucleic acid synthesis, protein function).
Know what it means to say that humans harbor resident microbiotic populations and know the difference between transient and resident microbes.
resident: stay with you, not impacted by hygiene
transient: are temporary and are impacted by hygiene(can be washed away when you wash hands/bathe)
Understand the different methods that drugs use to kill microbes. (How they act against the cell wall, cell membrane, function and structure of RNA and DNA, protein synthesis and key metabolic pathways).
Know the various ways that microbes can render a drug ineffective (increasing drug resistance)
Drug inactivation, decreasing permeability, activation of drug pumps, altering the binding site of the drug, using alternative metabolic pathways to produce essential products
Understand the implications of drug resistance in microbes and strategies that we can use to control the spread of resistance pathogens.
drug resistance is driven by over use of agricultural antibiotics; greatest source of resistance
Be able to define Infectious Dose
minimum number of microbes required for infection
Measles_ greatest virulence
Bacteria release toxins. Know the origin and difference between exotoxins and endotoxins.
Endotoxin - not secreted but is released after cell damage
Exotoxin - toxin molecule secreted by a living bacterial cell into the infected tissue
Understand what nosocomial infections are.
from the hospital
Be able to define and label a figure with the four stages of infection (Incubation, Prodromal, Invasion, and Convalescence).
measures to reduce spread of nosocomial infections
Be able to give a definition of Epidemiology and be able to recognize the difference in patterns of disease (Endemic, Sporadic, Epidemic and Pandemic).
Know the differences between the three levels of defense and whether they are innate (inborn) or acquired.
first line of defense: is a surface protection composed of anatomical and physiological barriers that keep microbes from penetrating sterile body compartments.
barriers: skin, tears, stomach
second line of defense: is a cellular and chemical system that comes immediately into play if infectious agents make it past the surface defenses. Examples include phagocytes that destroy foreign matter, and inflammation which holds infections in check.
third line of defense: includes specific defenses that must be developed uniquely for each microbe through the action of specialized white blood cells. This form of immunity is marked by its activity toward specific pathogens and development of memory.
Understand generally how white blood cells (WBC) are able to determine the difference between self cells and non-self cells (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and Pathogen recognition receptors (PRR))
WBC- innate capability to recognise self vs non self via receptors(antigens)
PAMPs- shared molecules
PRRs- receptors for PAMPs on WBCs
Know generally how the immune system can destroy invading cells by Interferon and the Complement cascade.
Interferon - dying cell releases signal proteins that notify nearby cells and induce them to express genes that will interfere (in various ways) with the pathogen. Complement cascade - Cells produce membrane attack complex (MACs) that perforate the intruding cell's membrane causing lyses.(drill hole in membrane)
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