-light blue -green -red -tan -brown -black -yellow -gold -silver -Dark blue
-bubbles -extruded stopper -sticky stopper -burning on injection -corroded rusty cap -leakage -broken
Central nervous system consists of?
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system consists of?
sensory neurons, 12 cranial nerves, spinal nerves
Process of incoming sensory info FROM THE BODY TO THE CNS
Process of outgoing sensory info FROM THE CNS TO THE BODY
Afferent and efferent pathways that deal with voluntary and reflexive activities, like skin and teeth sensation with skeletal muscle reaction
somatic nervous system
afferent and efferent pathways that deal with involuntary or automatic activities like smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands
Autonomic nervous system
two sections of autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
fight or flight
rest and digest
Surrounds a single axon
bundles of axons
tissue wrapping fascicle
tissue wrapping nerve
located in the outer boundary of nerve fiber
located in the center of the nerve fiber
will mantle bundles or core bundles get numb first?
what produces myelin
Myelin is made up of? hint: %
75% lipid, 20% protein, and 5% carbs
provides insulations, protects and isolates the axon, wraps around the axon, speeds nerve transmissions, prevents external substances (LA example) from diffusing into the nerve, affect with multiple sclerosis
LA can only enter the nerve at the?
Nodes of Ranvier
the process where impluses are conducted more rapidly long myelinated nerves (ONLY MYELINATED)
Most numberous fiber in the PERIPHERAL nervous system, NOT myelinated, SLOW conduction, DULL ACHING SENSATION
What state is a nerve in when it receives little to no stimulaton?
Intracellular has what type of charge?
Extracellular has what type of charge?
What is the electrical charge inside a cell?
Put the following phases in order: a. firing threshold b. repolarization c. resting state d. rapid depolarization e. return to resting state f. slow depolarization
C. resting state F. Slow depolarization A. Firing threshold D. Rapid depolarization B. Repolarization E. Return to resting state
What closes off an ion from receiving NA influx?
A change in electrical charge is called?
slow depolarization occurs until the inside of the cell (Axoplasm) reaches the firing threshold which is?
the inability to successfully restimulate he membrane after impulse generation and conduction is called?
When the membrane cant be restimulated no matter how great the stimulus
resting state partially attained, a larger stimulus is required to achieve a firing threshold
Which LA is not available in a dental cartridge?
allows nerve membrane to be stable in a water based environment
keeps water soluble things out like ions
Local anesthetics classifications?
Amides and esters
How are amides and esters defined?
-end that allows passage through the cell membrane -end that gives anesthetic the ability to dissolve in water and keep molecules compatible and stable with tissues -dictates whether amide or ester which determines the route of metabolism
-lipophillic -hydrophillic -Intermediate chain
refers to the actions of a drug on the body
What chemical form is predominately found in the LA cartridge?
How does LA equilibrate in the tissues?
dissociating in 3 parts (RNH+, RN, AND H+)
A positively charged molecule is called a? An uncharged or neutral molecule is called a?
cation neutral base
something acidic has an abundance of what ions?
A high PKA means?
lower concentration of uncharged base molecules (RN)
The higher the PKA value means what for the onset of LA?
The manner in which the body manages a drug, specifically the mechanisms of absorption, biotransformation, and elimination