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81 terms

Reptiles & Amphibians

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Reptiles
cold blooded animals characterized by breathing air, producing tough-shelled amniotic eggs, and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes
Crocodylia (large reptiles)
crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators (Order of reptiles)
Rhynchocephalia (lizard-like reptiles)
tuataras (Order of reptiles)
Squamata (scaled reptiles)
lizards, snakes, and worm lizards (Order of reptiles)
Testudines (bony or cartilaginous shelled reptiles)
turtles, tortoises and terrapins (Order of reptiles, superorder Chelonia)
snakes
scaled reptiles
lizards
reptiles with overlapping scales
Amphibians
animals that metamorphose from a juvenile water-breathing form to an adult air-breathing form
Anura (tail-less amphibians)
frogs and toads (Order of amphibians)
Caudata (tailed amphibians)
salamanders and newts (Order of amphibians)
Gymnophiona (limbless amphibians
caecilians (Order of amphibians)
oviparous
produces eggs that hatch outside the body (egg-laying)
ovoviparous
produces eggs that develop and hatch inside the oviducts, nourishment comes from the yolk, live births (egg retention)
viviparous
produces eggs that develop and receive nourishment by blood from the placenta, live births
ecdysis
process of shedding
dysecdysis
difficulty in shedding
Reptiles (and frogs) inhabit every continent with the exception of?
Antarctica
tail autotomy
ability to detach tail
didactyl
toes are fused into a group of two and a group of three
diurnal
active during the daytime
chromatophores
pigment cells that change the color
cloaca
common collecting chamber of the digestive and genitourinary tracts (from the coprodeum & urodeum)
proctodeum
common chamber opening to the vent
lizards, turtles do not have a?
diaphragm (can not clear lungs by coughing)
Jacobson's organ (vomeronasal organ)
tongue transfers particles to these sensory cells
ectothermic
lacking an internal mechanism for regulating body heat, cold blooded
herbivore
plant-eating animal
insectivore
insect eating animal
carnivore
flesh (meat) eating animal
omnivore
eats plants and animals
metabolic bone disease
nutritional bone disease of reptiles (Caused by low calcium intake, low vitamin D3 intake, or excess phosphorus intake)
gout
result of excessive protein matabolism or catabolism (causes/caused by digestive, kidney disease or dehydration)
dystocia
retained eggs (egg binding)
terrestrial
living on land
arboreal
living in trees
aquatic
living in water
semi-aquatic
living half in water
marine
living in the sea
reptiles and amphibian heart?
consist of 3 chambers; right/left atria and a single ventricle
snake lungs?
only have a single right lung and a small non functioning left lung
snakes excrete uric acid because they do not have a?
urinary bladder
vitellogenesis
production of yolk
pinkies
baby mice, no fur present
fuzzies
baby mice that have just gotten fur
hoppers
juvenile mice that have fur
pups
nursing rats (unweaned)
weanlings
baby rats (weaned)
cloacal prolapse
prolapse of colon, hemipenes, uterus or oviduct
salmonellosis
zoonotic bacterial disease carried by most reptiles
tortoise
terrestrial chelonians
turtle
semi-aquatic chelonians
terrapins
semi-aquatic hard shelled chelonians
turtle shell (2 parts?)
carapace (top part), plastron (bottom part)
scutes
hard scales covering a turtle's shell (keratinized epithelium)
aquatic turtles (exchange oxygen?)
through the mucosal surface of the oral cavity and cloaca
soft shelled turtles (exchange oxygen?)
through their skin
vertical pupil
excellent for night vision
horizontal pupil
excellent for day vision
all salamanders and frogs have?
poison glands
amphibians exhibit four modalities of respiration
branchial (gill respiration), buccopharyngeal (air gulping, gular or buccal pumping), cutaneous and pulmonic
celiocentesis
removal of fluid from the abdomen by centesis (on amphibians)
spectacle
fused eyelids of snakes
male snake anatomy
right and left testicle and a pair of hemipenes (during copulation, only one hemipenis is used)
female reptile anatomy
pair of ovaries and oviducts (no true uterus)
snake, turtle sexual maturity
determined by the size, not age (1-2 years)
gravid
pregnant; carrying, developing young or eggs
salamanders
tailed amphibians (prefer semi aquatic environments, uses internal fertilization)
frogs
tail-less amphibians (prefer semi aquatic environments, long rear legs, uses external fertilization)
toads
tail-less amphibians (no teeth, prefer dryer environments, short, thick rear legs, has poison glands behind eyes, use external fertilization)
snake reproduction
most snake are oviparous, all boas, vipers and garter snakes are ovoviparous
frog reproduction
are oviparous, tend to lay eggs in clusters
turtle reproduction
are oviparous, tend to lay eggs in long chains
salamander reproduction
are oviparous (many salamanders- the male deposits a packet of sperm called a spermatophore onto the ground. The female then pulls it into her cloaca where fertilization occurs internally)
lizard reproduction
are oviparous or ovoviparous
amphibian metamorphosis
formation of four legs, gills are replaced by other respiratory organs, skin changes and develops glands to avoid dehydration, eyes develop eyelids and adapt to vision outside the water, An eardrum is developed to lock the middle ear, In frogs and toads, the tail disappears
reptile penis (or hemipenes)
isn't connected to the urinary tract and is strictly an organ of reproduction
venom
in injected
poison
touched or ingested
feral
wild, untamed
brille
transparent caps as protective eye coverings (snakes do not have moveable eyelids)
4 reptile diseases
gout (high levels of uric acid), Salmonellosis, Infectious Stomatitis (Mouth Rot), dystocia (Egg Binding), Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD, low calcium, vit D/high phosphorous)