Language Development Test #2

What is over regularization?
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What is considered one morpheme?emphasis words, compound words, proper names, ritualized reduplications (choo-choo), irregular past tense verbs, diminutives (mommy, doggy), auxiliary verbs (gonna, hafta), irregular plurals (men, geese, feet)What is considered two morphemes?possessive, plural nouns, 3rd person singular or present tense (walks, eats), regular past tense verbs (walked), present progressive (walking, eating), contractions (they're, we've; do NOT include let's, don't and won't)How do you calculate the MLU?morphemes/utterances=MLUHow do children acquire English grammatical morphemes?1. Present progressive 2/3. prepositions 4. plural 5. irregular past tense 6. possessive 7. copula (uncontractible: this IS my book) 8. articles 9. regular past tense 10. 3rd person present tense regular 11. 3rd person present tense irregular 12. Auxiliary (uncontractible) 13. copula (contractible) 14. auxiliary (contractible)What is the definition of semantic relations?a limited set of meaning conveyed by a child's early utterancesWhat are the different types of semantic relations?action + object; person + object; recurrence + object; negation + object; person + actionWhat are the different types of coordinations?sentential and phrasalWhat is an example of a phrasal coordination?I want chocolate milk and a cookie please.What is an example of sentential coordination?I want chocolate milk and I want a cookie please.Describe Stage 1:2 word utterances, from 12-26 months of age, creative and simple utterancesWhat are creative utterances?In stage 1; generate novel and fairly simple sentences- rather than imitative sentencesWhat are simple utterances?In stage 1; primarily consists of content nouns and verbs (Open Class Words--nouns, verbs and adjectives)What are open class words?Nouns, verbs and adjectivesWhat is learnability?part of the linguist theory; learned in a relatively short period of time with little explicit training or correctionWhat is the importance of communicative competence?Associated with Social Competence; Comprehend the structure/routines associated with school (teacher's perceptions of the student's abilities, how to request additional information (ask questions)); Early communicative competence is associated with later literacy skills (promotes writing skills, learn the organization of stories/book); The ability to interact well with others (this is difficult for children to learn because the circumstances are constantly changing)Know about MLU:Chronological age and MLU are generally correlated- from 18 months to 5 years, the MLU may increase by 1.2 morphemes per year.What are the 2 theoretical approaches to pragmatics?Speech acts & Cognitive development theoryWho introduced the speech acts theory?John AustinWhat is the speech act theory?The idea of speech as an act or behavior (words can be actions); the components of speech act theory are: locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionaryWhat is locutionary?Part of the speech act theory; makes sense, refers to something (actual statement)What is illocutionary?Part of the speech act theory; the speakers purpose in saying somethingWhat is perlocutionary?Part of the speech act theory; the effect on the listener (how they take it)Who introduced the cognitive development theory?Jean PiagetWhat is the cognitive development theory?non egocentric language: the ability to adapt to the listener; egocentric language (diminishes around age 7 to 10): the inability to adapt to the listener; Conversation Skills (turn taking, maintaining a topic, giving and responding to feedback, language styles)How does pragmatics develop in preschoolers?Non-egocentric language: "egocentrism" varies according to their familiarity with a context (the more familiar they are, the less egocentric they are); requests: direct with friends (semantic aggravators) and indirect with adults (semantic mitigators)What are the conversational skills?turn taking- late infancy; maintaining the topic- more difficult more preschoolers when they're on the phone; giving and receiving feedback; backchannel feedback- head nods, "uh-huh", "right", "I see"What are the language varieties?registers: vary according to three things- participants, setting, and topics dialects: natural variations of a language that evolve within a specific region or defined group of peopleWhat is different about African American English?AAE; phonological characteristics (word sounds), syntactical characteristics (word order), pragmatic features (social)What are the influences on the acquisition of pragmatics?Bridge Hypothesis, Birth Order, School Influence Knowledge and Skills Required by the Child: Cognitive Abilities, Scripts, Hypothesis TestingWhat is the bridge hypothesis?Fathers (secondary caregivers), siblings, and teachers act as a mediator (prepares them to talk with peers, strangers, etc.) between familiar and unfamiliar conversational partnersWhat is birth order?laterborn have to fight for conversationWhat is school influence?peer interaction, variety of experiences (recess, show and tell, staying on topic), role governing communicative behavior (raising hands, turn taking), different forms of discourse (show and tell)What are cognitive abilities?A knowledge and skill necessary to acquire pragmatics; need knowledge and awareness of various social routines (e.g., trick or treating)What are scripts?A knowledge and skill necessary to acquire pragmatics; familiarity with the script helps decrease the cognitive demand allowing the child to focus more on the conversationWhat is hypothesis testing?A knowledge and skill necessary to acquire pragmatics; learn by trial and error ("pu")What are the parental strategies for teaching pragmatics?Prompts, Modeling, Reinforcement, OtherWhat is an example of a prompt?saying "what do you say?" to remind kids to say "thank you" (a parental strategy for teaching pragmatics)What is an example of modeling?dad saying "Will you please pass the peas? Thank you, Mom" as example to the kids (a parental strategy for teaching pragmatics)What is an example of reinforcement?give praise- catch them doing it correctly (a parental strategy for teaching pragmatics)What is an example of "other?" (a parental strategy for teaching pragmatics)hypothetical situation or evaluate: Routines, repetitions, models, child directed, provides visual cues/gestures, input meaning into babbling, face to face interactions, motherese?Gopnik and Meltzoff did which study?The object permanence and "disappearance" word study (all gone)--part of the cognitive theoryWhat is classical conditioning/associative learning?understanding/receptive- instigated by the adult, pointing to a dog and labeling it- operant conditioning- child instigated (they say wawa and get water); e.g., Natural Stimulus + Conditioned Stimulus = Response (part of the Behaviorist theory)What is the difference between competency and performance?Competence: the individuals knowledge of the language- Structuralist (comprehesion) Performance: the individual's use of the language- Functionalist (production)Where is the LAD?Language acquisition device; No one knows! People say it is there, but there is no evidence! (switch box)What is nativism?NURTURE (child)What is empiricism?NATURE (environment)What theory does child directed speech belong to?The interactionist theory (both cognitive and social interactionist theory within!)What is universality?part of the linguist theory; compatible with all languages in the worldWhat is the difference between functional and structural?Functional: What it is: Examine the situation the utterance was said in (e.g., Analyze where and who it was said to as well as what were the results) Aspect of Language: Pragmatics; Structural: What it is: The form of the utterance (e.g., Analyze the form (subject, main verb, object)), Aspect of Language: SyntaxWhat did Nelson's study look at?individual differences in early word acquisitionWhat were Nelson's study's weaknesses?Parental Reports: Parents report more nouns, Context/Setting- may limit the type of vocabulary collected; Frequency vs. Knowledge: may have the word but are not using it frequently; How was the word used? noun vs. verb (action)Why was the study of individual differences important?prior to Katherine Nelson's research, no one was looking for individual differences in language acquisitions; Referential; ExpressiveWhat is referential?vocabulary is primarily about objectsWhat is expressive?vocabulary is primarily personal or social terms (pronouns and function words)What is code oriented?concerned with representing things in the environment (objects)What is message oriented?concerned with using language to manipulate the social situation (social)What is input factors?A source of variation; moms of children who use more of a referential versus expressive style: high SES = more object labels, low SES = more direct commands/requestsWhat are child factors?A source of variation; How the child segments (e.g., L, M, N, O, P - Ella meno p; The United States- Night of States)- frozen phrases, Rate of learning, Sensitivity to Prosodic Tunes, Shyness, Pre-linguistic Conceptual Organization, Shared Attention- Nouns vs. Expressive SpeechWhat are linguistic factors?A source of variation; nouns are more common/heard in the English languageWhat are context factors?A source of variation; interaction of the child, caregiver, & language depending on the situation/activity - Also different cultural differencesWhat are frozen phrases and who uses them?Used more by later born children, Two or more words that are used together and not individually (what's up)What are the first born versus later born study results?first borns first 50 words come a month earlier, but by 100 words they were about even with later borns; later borns were delayed in terms of when they reach the 50 word mark; later borns used more "frozen phrases" at the 100 word mark; later borns used more deictic terms (pronouns) at both the 50 & 100 word mark.Before the 1970s, child language research was motivated almost exclusively by an interest in...the form or structure of child utterances (syntax)Frozen phrases are...longer linguistic units that may be produced before true word combinationsChildren's earliest questions are usually...statements with rising intonation_______ allow the grammatical inflection of words and are used to change the syntactic class of words.Phonemes