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the view that most of earth's geological features are the result of large-scale catastrophes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, etc.


the view that most of earth's geological features are the result of slow, gradual processes that have been at work for millions or even billions of years.


the decayed remains of once-living creatures


inorganic crystalline substances found naturally in the earth


the process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature


the process by which sediments and rock fragments are carried away by wind or rain


a surface of erosion that separates one layer of rock from another

sedimentary rock

rock formed from sediments (sand, silt, and other components of soil) and laid down by water or some other agent.

igneous rock

rock formed from molten rock, which is usually called magna.

metamorphic rock

rock that has undergone extreme change due to lots of heat and pressure.


when a single layer of rock is less than 1 centimeter


when stratified layers rest on top of unstratified layers


when there are parallel, stratified rock layers above and below the unconformity, but there is a clear surface of erosion between them


unidentifiable unconformities


"veins" of igneous rock that shoot right through several layers of sedimentary rock


intrusions that run in the same direction as the strata


"veins" that run perpendicular to the dirrection of the strata

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