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body's ability to defend itself agains infections agents, foreign cells; creates a better chance to maintain homeostasis
1st line of defense
prevents entry of microorganisms using the skin, mucous membranes, keratin (resistant to acids bases and bacterial enzymes and toxins) and cilia
main phagocyte; form from monocytes; free macrophages wander throughout a region in search of cellular debris
first responders; become phagocytic when they encounter infectious matrerial like bacteria or fungi
natural killer cells
large granular lymphocytes; attack cancer cells and virally infected cells by penetrateing plasma membrane with the release of perforins and other cytolytic chemicals; not phagocytic
tissue response to injury; occurs when the tissues are injured by physical trauma, intense heat, irritating chemicals or infection
inflammatory chemical; causes inflammation, vasodilation, increase speed of repair; brings helpful substances to the area
released by damaged cells; hormone like substance that participates in a wide range of body functions such as the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, the dilation and constriction of blood vessels, control of blood pressure, sensitize spinal neurons to pain and modulation of inflammation
neutrophils are released from bone marrow in response to leukocytosis-inducing factors released by injured cells
proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form; provides a major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body
chemicals released in the presence of bacteria and other substances; secreted by leukocytes and macrophages
systemic response; not limited to initial infection site; able to recognize the same antigen and mount faster stronger defensive attack
immunity associated with T lymphocytes and has living cells as its protective factor
antigens that are able to stimulate the proliferation of specific lymphocytes and antibodies and to react with the activated lymphochytes and produced antibodies; can develop antibodies
incomplete antigens that are not capable of stimulating the immune response, but if they interact with proteins of the body, they may be recognized as potentially harmful; allergies
process of the B cell growing and multiplying to form an army of cells that are capable of recognizing the same antigen
primary immune response
occurs on first exposure to a particular antigen with a lag time of about 3-6 days
secondary immune response
occurs when someone is re-exposed to the same antigen; a faster, more prolonged, and more effective response
naturally acquired active immunity
occures when a person suffers through the symptoms of an infection
artificially acquired passive immunity
occurs when a person is given preformed antibodies that have been harvested from another person
antibodies; proteins secreted by plasma cells in response to an antigen that are capable of binding to that antigen
major immunoglobulin secreted during the secondary response; most abundant and diverse antibody; protects against bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood and lymph; cross the placenta and gives passive immunity to a fetus
complement binds to antibodies attached to antigens and then leads to lysis of the cell
occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins, causing them to lose their toxic effects
occurs when soluble molecules are cross-linked into large complexes that settle out of solution
include horomone-like glycoproteins released by activated T cells and macrophages; attract leukocytes to particular locations
Killer T cells
act against viral invaded cells and cancer cells; involved with foreign tissue graphs
suppressor t cells
stops or slows activity of immune system; thought to help in controlling autoimmune disease
any congenital or acquired condition that causes immune cells, phagocytes or compliment, to behave abnormally
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Cripples the immune system by interfering with the activity of helper Tcells.
The immune system loses the ability to distinguish from self and foe; includes multiple sclerosis, graves disease, Type I diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis
body-wide or system response; bee sting, spider bite; sever systemic allergic reaction
take 1-3 hours to occure and last 10-15 hours; may be caused by hair dyes; caused by antibodies
reaction takes about 1-3 days to occur and may take weeks to go away; examples include deoderants, cosemetics and metals
A type of immediate hypersensitivity response that results in "weeping" skin lesions and intense itching. Onset is the first five years of life in 90% of cases. The allergen is uncertain, but familial predisposition is strong.
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