28 terms

Vocabulary: weather/climate

This is for Ms. Randulfe's vocabulary quiz over the climate unit.
STUDY
PLAY
weather
condition of the atmosphere in one place during a short period
climate
weather patterns typical for an area over a long period of time
revolution
the Earth's yearly trip around the sun
prevailing winds
wind in a region that blows in a fairly constant direction
humidity
the amount of moisture in the air
orographic effect
the effect of mountains on climate; produces wet conditions on
one side, dry conditions on the other (the ENTIRE PROCESS)
rain shadow
RESULT of the orographic effect, where DRY CONDITIONS DEVELOP ON THE LEEWARD SIDES OF MOUNTAIN RANGES
greenhouse effect
capacity of certain gases in the atmosphere to trap heat, thus warming the Earth
monsoons
in Asia, seasonal winds that bring warm, moist air from the oceans in summer and cold, dry air from inland in winter
doldrums
a frequently windless area near the Equator
hurricanes
large, powerful windstorms that form over warm ocean waters
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
precipitation
moisture that falls to the earth as rain, sleet, snow, or hail
aquifer
underground water-bearing layers of porous rock, sand, or gravel
front
zone where a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet; usually creates stormy weather
temperature
degree of hotness or coldness measured on a set scale
global warming
gradual warming of the Earth and its atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect
cyclone
storm with heavy rains and high winds that blow in a circular pattern around an area of low atmospheric pressure (hurricanes & typhoons)
arid
dry
tornadoes
violently twisting spirals of air
typhoons
violent tropical storms that form in the WESTERN Pacific
trade winds
prevailing winds in the lower latitudes (tropics); blow from east to west; used by Europeans to sail to the Americas
westerlies
prevailing winds in the middle latitudes; blow from west to east
polar winds
prevailing winds in the high latitudes
windward
being in or facing the direction FROM which the wind is blowing
leeward
being in or facing the direction TOWARD which the wind is blowing
El Niño
a periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and water temperatures in the mid-Pacific region
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
a seasonal weather event that can cause droughts in Australia and powerful cyclones in the South Pacific