CH 6 GOV'T VOCAB EXEC BRANCH
Terms in this set (100)
chief executive (a)
another title for the president, who holds the executive's power to run government programs and implement laws that are passed by congress
another title for the president, who serves as commander of the nation's military forces
the president has the job of formulating the nation's plans and procedures for dealing with other countries
the art of negotiating with foreign governments
chief of state (a)
another title for the president, takes on the role of the symbolic figurehead of the US; also known as the head of state
the process of succeeding, or coming after someone
formal, signed statements from the president that instruct or guide executive officials and have the force of law
executive privilege (a)
the power that allows a president to refuse to release information to congress or a court
the presidential power to formally recognize the legitimacy of a foreign government
a postponement in the carrying out of a prison sentence
an official act by the president or by a governor forgiving a person convicted of a crime and freeing that person from serving out his or her sentence
a general pardon for offenses committed by a group of offenders
to reduce a person's sentence
the group of people who work for the executive branch under a specific president
Executive Office of the President
the group of advisers and assistants to the president
White House Office
the key assistants and deputy assistants to the president that handle much of the daily business in the White House
Chief of Staff
the official who manages the everyday operations of the White House Office or who may serve as the primary presidential advisor who controls all access to the president and helps map political strategy
National Security Council (NSC)
the group of the top military, foreign affairs, and intelligence officials in the president's administration that focuses on U.S. national security
Council of Economic Advisors (CEA)
the group of advisors charged with providing the president with expert analysis of the economy and to also assist in forming economic policy
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
the organization set up to develop and implement the federal budget legislation, government regulations, the management of government finances, and the purchase of goods, services, and property for the entire government
agencies of the federal government responsible for carrying out laws, administering programs, and making regulations in their particular area of responsibility
A president must be a natural-born U.S. citizen
what is unique about the president's qualifications compared to the legislative branch?
- chief executive (execute what branch does), chief administrator (programs/depts. run smoothly), commander in chief, foreign policy leader (set relationships w/ nations), chief agenda setter
- chief of state (symbolically represent U.S.A.), party leader (carry out party's platform raise $ for party), chief citizen (perfect example of what an American citizen entails)
What are some of the many formal and informal jobs of the president?
Speaker of the House is supposed to be the most representative figure after the president and vice president. Most representative because the House is a representation of the people and the Speaker of the House is chosen by the House to lead this. Truman made this clear.
Why was the Speaker of the House chosen to be the 2nd person for presidential succession after the vice president?
The purpose of the electoral college is to help maintain power from small and large states
What is the purpose of the electoral college, and why should Americans still vote for the president?
The president's executive privilege gives him the right to refuse to release information to Congress or a court. An example of this is Osama Bin Laden. Also, George Bush (Sr.) ordered navy seals in Panama to get Noriega- lied about saying there was no casualties when there were coffins of navy seals
what does the president's executive privilege give him the right to do?
The 4 original presidential cabinet positions were the secretaries of state, war, and treasury, and the attorney general. Today we have a total of 16 cabinet positions.
what were the 4 original presidential cabinet positions and how many do we have now?
The president is directly responsible for hiring so many positions in government because he needs people to focus on specifics of the government. He hires people that want to enforce his policies. Hires people that have similar beliefs. Also, the president is blamed when things go wrong.
why do you think the president is directly responsible for hiring so many positions in government?
The job of the vice president is to reside over the Senate and he breaks ties. They preside over the Senate, open and count the electoral votes in residential electors, and serves as president if the president cannot do the job.
what is the job of the vice president?
chief of executive, chief administrator, commander in chief, foreign policy leader, chief agenda setter
What are the official roles of the president?
chief executive (b)
(official) it has the job to make sure all legislation is enforced and all programs are put into action
(official) it has his job to make sure all government departments and programs run smoothly
(official) he can send troops to wherever and whenever he wants, can move troops, but can't declare war
foreign policy leader
(official) he est. how we are going to deal w/ every other nation in the world
chief agenda setter
(official) helps Congress prepare the budget
chief of state, party leader, chief citizen
What are the unofficial roles of the president?
chief of state (b)
(unofficial) he represents the U.S. symbolically
(unofficial) he has to carry out the party's platform (beliefs) the best he can, raise money for his party
(unofficial) the president has to be the perfect example of what an American citizen is
-be @ least 35 years old
-have lived in the country for 14 years
-be a natural-born U.S. citizen
what are the formal qualifications to be president?
-Washington left after 2 terms and by doing this he set the precedent
-FDR won a fourth term
-22nd amendment was passed two years after he died, limiting the president to 2 terms
how have the term limits for the president changed and why?
-the people vote→which creates the popular vote
-electoral college votes
-each state gets the same number of electors as their congressmen (based on population)
-all states now have popular elections for their electors
-48 states the electors have to cast their vote for the candidate that won the popular vote in their state
-winner takes all
how is the president elected?
white, male, old rich, christian
-1 catholic president
-In 2000, Joe Lieberman first Jew to run for VP and was a major candidate
-Pres. Obama: 1st African American pres.
What are the unwritten qualifications to become president?
likable, successful, relatable, good speaker
What are the personal qualities a president needs to possess?
President and nearly 3000
who appoints cabinet positions and how many?
1/3 of the cabinet positions
How many of the cabinet positions have to be approved by Congress?
cabinet positions, supreme court justices, top military advisors, federal judges, ambassadors
What has to be approved by Congress for appointment and removal?
to executive all laws
-can issue executive orders w/o Congress to do his job
ex: Killing of Osama
The president has the power through the Constitution...
executive privilege (b)
the president has the right to withhold info from other branches if government when he thinks its in the name of the nation's security
Treaty making power
Under the President's Diplomatic and Military Powers, the president can do what but also needs congress's approval?
can be made between the president and other nations' leaders w/o the approval of congress and they're as valid as laws
Diplomatic recognition of the President
he president can and cannot formally recognize the government of a foreign nation
Military Powers of the President
-Commander in chief
-U.S. has only declared war officially 5 times
-War of 1812, Mexican American War, Spanish American War, WW1, WW2
Legislative and Judicial Powers of the President
-Their main type of power is the power of the veto and they can also suggest legislation
-can nominate federal and supreme court judges and justices
-reprieve, pardon, amnesty
Should be able to communicate with media, Pres. offers support to follow party members at the election time, high approval rate and support of public
What are some of the informal powers of the president?
most early presidents did little to challenge the constitution, defer to Congress or legislative branch for them to do the job
what were most of the presidents in the first 100 years of the country like?
- believed there was a threat to the Union, had to take charge b/c in bad shape, had to preserve the Union;
- give exec. branch stronger powers to regulate commerce, to protect park lands;
- Social Security and New Deal
How did Lincoln, Teddy Roosevelt and FDR expand the role and the power of the executive branch?
Conservatives though the government had become too big and Liberals felt the presidency had taken on qualities resembling those of a monarchy
who has a problem with the expanding role of the president and why?
By virtue of America's economic and military strength, American presidents are today the most powerful leaders in the world
How do Americans and people abroad view the modern day President?
Media can scrutinize and criticize a president. Despite efforts to protect and uphold reputation, the power available to modern pres. thru the media can also work against them. Intense media scrutiny can quickly damage less popular presidents and decrease their powers as President.
How does the Americans and media enforce checks on the president?
The people made who work for the executive branch (career government employees)
Who is considered to be part of the president's administration?
White House Office, Nation Security council, Council of Economic Advisors, Office of Management & Budget
which offices are part of the executive office of the president?
Teddy-era of activist gov't. Exec. branch gradually increased its power believing that pres. had the right to use all powers except those that were specifically denied him to accomplish goals, Pres. became center of American political arena. He also challenged limited gov't & individualism- advocated gov't regulation to achieve social and economic justice, used exec. orders to accomplish goals→ waged aggressive foreign policy, 1st to use media to appeal to people
How did Theodore Roosevelt expand the president's staff?
Domestic policy council office of cabinet liason, National Economic Council, Office of Communications, Office of the First Lady, Office of Legislative Affairs, White House Counsel, USA Freedom Corps., Office of Speech Writing, Office of Political Afairs
what office is the chief of staff in charge of?
What brings together the top military, foreign affairs, and intelligent officials in the administration to coordinate U.S. national Security policy
provides the pres. w/ expert analysis of the economy
helps develop the federal budget and to oversee its execution by the agencies in the executive branches
- help elect the President, presiding over the Senate, opening and closing votes in elections and vacancy
- help make policies and carry them out, given special assignments and they have their own staff
How did the role of the vice president change from the early years to modern years?
Washington- 4 members (secretaries of state, war, treasury and the attorney general), provide valuable guidance to presidents, choose people w/ varying political views
Modern- 4 times larger, the votes of the cabinet members has increased vice president is included in the cabinet
How did the President's cabinet from Washington to now?
Washington left after 2 terms and by ding so, he set the precedent. FDR ended up winning a fourth term and the 22th amendment was passed after FDR, limiting the president to 2 years
How has the term of office of the presidency changed over the years?
Yes because some of the informal/unofficial roles he is supposed t fulfill. The president is also the chief of state, representing the U.S. symbolically. The president is also supposed to embody chief citizen, setting the perfect example of what an American citizen is.
Do you think presidents should be judges by their personal qualities as shown in their behavior in public?
To exercise informal powers, the president needs ability to lead public opinion, strike deals w/ congressional leaders, manage press relations, mobilize constituencies, and conserve political capital
What does the president need in order to effectively exercise the informal powers of the presidency?
If the president didn't have this power, any negotiations would be inhibited by the political party that is in control and the majority, and international conflicts would worsen, because there would be no compromises or meeting in the middle
What might happen if the president alone did not have the power to negotiate with foreign gov'ts?
-The cabinet is an advisory body made up of 15 exec. departs. (not including the VP). They're responsible for carrying out laws, administering programs, and making regulations in their area of responsibility.
-The Executive Office of the President consists of a number of separate offices that help the President formulate policy.
How does the cabinet differ from the Executive Office of the President?
The President may try to grip more power by having a larger administration, hut he still only obtains the same powers allocated to him by the Consistution
How do you think the growth in the size of presidential administration affects the president's power?
Chief exec., chief administrator, commander in chief, foreign policy leader
What are the 5 official roles of the President and what are the responsibilities?
gov't programs are carried out and that the laws passed by Congress are implemented
Chief administrator (c)
manages the 15 exec. deps. and numerous fed. agencies that help carry out gov't policy
order troops into action, call back
foreign policy leader (c)
negotiates treaties, receiving foreign ambassadors, direct country's ambassadors and diplomatic efforts, formulate plants to deal with other nations
Chief agenda setter (c)
set outline of the things to do and prepare annual federal budget
chief of state, party leader, chief citizen
What are the 3 official roles of the President and what are the responsibilities?
chief of state
takes role of the symbolic figurehead of the U.S., represents country @ events
party leader (c)
shaping and promoting party platform/what they stand for
chief citizen (c)
primary reps. of the nation, models of good citizenship and are often held to a high standard of personal behavior by the American public
-be at least 35 years old
-have lived in the country for 14 years
-be a natural-born U.S. citizen
What are the formal qualifications to become president?
-voters choose electors that pledge to support the candidates that the voters choose→ electoral college
-electors are determined by each state is allocated a # of electors equal to the # of its senators (2) plus # of its U.S. Reps. (based off of population)
-Maine and Nebraska pick some of their electors by congressional district-just 2 of these electors are chosen by winner-take-all from the state. The remaining electors are determined by winner in each congressional district, w/ each district voting for one elector
How is the president elected, how are electors determined, and what is different about Maine and Nebraska?
-According to the Constitution, the VP is the 1st in the line of succession to the presidency
-But it was unclear if VP becomes pres. or just acts as pres. if there was presidential vacancy
-The order of succession was determined by the order in which each cabinet department had been created
-25th amendment set guidelines for succession and what to do in case of pres. disability
-Truman signed Pres. Succession Act pushed for the Speaker of the House to be next in line since it was the most representative
How was the president's succession determined and what is the order? (amendment #, Truman, name first 7)
Possess leadership, likability, good communicator, persuasive, inspiring, appearance, dignified, confident, poised and charismatic
What are some of the qualities Americans have come to expect of presidents?
Appoints Supreme Court Justices, federal judges, ambassadors, members of the cabinet, and top military advisors
What are some of the positions the president appoints?
- purpose is to give the pres. great power to interpret laws passed by Congress, use to clarify a law's application & est. rules and regulations for operation of exec. agency
- shield info in the interest of national security hold private convos w/ advisors in order to make good decisions
What is the purpose of the executive orders and executive privileges?
- negotiate treaties, make exec. agreements, formally recognize the legitimacy of a foreign gov't- diplomatic recognition
- ensure defense/security of nation/interests around the world, take military action w/o a formal declaration of war from Congress, can deploy troops overseas, but must get Congress's approval to declare war.
What are the presidential powers? (Diplomatic and Military wise)
- influence the work of Congress in the role of chief agenda setter, permitted to suggest legislation @ any time, veto
- may nominate people who become federal judges/justices, alter the sentences of people convicted of crimes thru their powers of clemency or mercy, grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the US, can offer amnesty, can commute a person's sentence, can issue reprieves, pardons, commutations for federal crimes, and issue clemency to free a person wrongly convicted
What powers does the president have over the legislative and judicial branches?
-Clinton V. City of NY: Supreme Court ruled that the sue of the line-item veto by Clinton violated Presentment Clause of the Constitution, since it gave president undue power to amend/repeal parts of laws that had already been passed by Congress and Congress can choose to override a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members of each house vote to do so.
How did the other 2 branches check on the president?
Media can scrutinize and criticize a pres. Despite efforts to protect and uphold reputation, the power available to modern pres. thru the media can also work against them. Intense media scrutiny can quickly damage less popular pres. and decrease their power as pres.
How can the media and the American people serve as checks on the pres.?
-Not only did gov't itself expand to meet the emergency of the civil war, but Lincoln took on more powers. After the war and Reconstruction, Congress resumed its traditional role in national affairs but Lincoln's actions were to prove as a model for later presidents. To take control of emergencies, Teddy Roosevelt shaped public opinion & pressured Congress to pass his legislation- believed big business came w/ probs and gov't need more tools to handle challenges
-Great Depression→ FDR, convinced Congress to create a host of new gov't programs, SS, New Deal programs
How and why have certain presidents been able to expand the power of the executive branch?
It was est. so the President would have help with formulating policy. An era of activist gov't led to expansion of pres's staff. It was est. when Roosevelt asked Congress to authorize a new organizational structure to help manage these new agencies- EOP.
Wy was the executive office of the president est. and whats the purpose?
Job is to focus on managing the everyday operations of the White House Office, is a primary presidential advisor who controls all access to the President and helps map political strategy. Oversees teams charged w/ political tasks such as handling relations w/ Congress & the cabinet, dealing w/ pres. mail, planning pres. appearances, and hiring other members of press staff, manages the work of staff offices that are responsible for getting out the pres's message.
What is the job of the pres's chief of staff and what departments is he in charge of?
Before, the main role of the VP was to help elect the president, didn't attend cabinet meetings or help make policy. Today VP make policy, carry out their programs, carry out their duties, VP have their own staffs
How has the role of the vice president changed?
-Constitution doesnt directly say "cabinet" but implis it. Cabinets provided valuable guidance to pres.→ may require the opinions. Early on, Washington convinced Congress to create Deps of Foreign Affairs, War, Treasury and these become 1st cabinets. More exec. deps. were created and the opinions of heads of deps. have become more important in the running of the gov't
-A new exec. deps. have been created, the size of the cabinet has increased so it rose to 16 official cabinets to specify positions
How and why was the cabinet created and how and why has it become 16?
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