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Social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth. While the upper-class is exceptionally well-to-do, ______ people live in poverty in America


________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.

Social classes

Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ________ that is passed on from one generation to the next.

a culture of poverty

Which theory focuses on the urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates, to explain crime?

social disorganization theory

Strain theory holds that crime is a function of

conflict between people's goals and means.

Social disorganization theory was popularized by the work of two Chicago sociologists:

Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay

Shaw and McKay explained crime and delinquency within the context of

the changing urban environment and ecological development of the city.

According to the author, the most important of Shaw and McKay's findings was that

crime rates correspond to neighborhood structure

According to Shaw and McKay, a __________ neighborhood is an area wracked by extreme poverty and suffering high rates of population turnover.


Social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to

community deterioration.

What is the result of ineffective community social control efforts?

Crime rates increase.

When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as


What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?

culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them

According to institutional anomie theorists, the _________ is both a goal and process to accumulate goods and wealth.

American Dream

Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of __________, the idea that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.

relative deprivation

Agnew suggests that criminality is the direct result of __________ - the anger, frustration and adverse emotions associated with destructive social relationships

negative affective states

General strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how _____ influence behavior.

life events

Because social conditions prevent them from achieving success legitimately, lower-class youths experience a form of culture conflict that Albert Cohen labels

status frustration

Walter Miller identified the unique conduct norms that define the lower-class culture and that often clash with conventional values. Which of the following is not one of those norms?


Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called

cultural transmission

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