Social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth. While the upper-class is exceptionally well-to-do, ______ people live in poverty in America
________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.
Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ________ that is passed on from one generation to the next.
a culture of poverty
Which theory focuses on the urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates, to explain crime?
social disorganization theory
Strain theory holds that crime is a function of
conflict between people's goals and means.
Social disorganization theory was popularized by the work of two Chicago sociologists:
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Shaw and McKay explained crime and delinquency within the context of
the changing urban environment and ecological development of the city.
According to the author, the most important of Shaw and McKay's findings was that
crime rates correspond to neighborhood structure
According to Shaw and McKay, a __________ neighborhood is an area wracked by extreme poverty and suffering high rates of population turnover.
Social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to
What is the result of ineffective community social control efforts?
Crime rates increase.
When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as
What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?
culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them
According to institutional anomie theorists, the _________ is both a goal and process to accumulate goods and wealth.
Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of __________, the idea that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.
Agnew suggests that criminality is the direct result of __________ - the anger, frustration and adverse emotions associated with destructive social relationships
negative affective states
General strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how _____ influence behavior.
Because social conditions prevent them from achieving success legitimately, lower-class youths experience a form of culture conflict that Albert Cohen labels
Walter Miller identified the unique conduct norms that define the lower-class culture and that often clash with conventional values. Which of the following is not one of those norms?
Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called