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repair of a cardiac valve.

beta-hemolytic streptococci

gram-positive bacteria that, when grown on blood-agar plates, completely hemolyze the blood and produce a clear zone around the bacteria colony. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci cause disease in humans.

cardiac tamponade

The life-threatening compression of the heart by the fluid accumulating in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart.


a group of diseases that affect the myocardium's (heart muscle's) structure or function.


a nervous condition marked by involuntary muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles.


surgical incision of any commissure as in cardiac valves to increase the size of the orifice.

Dressler's syndrome

postmyocardial infarction syndrome; pericarditis.


solid, liquid, or gaseous masses of undissolved matter traveling with the fluid current in a blood or lymphatic vessel.

infective endocarditis

inflammation of the heart lining caused by microorganisms.


the condition of being inadequate for a given purpose, such as heart valves that do not close properly.

international normalized ratio

the World Health Organization's standard for reporting the prothrombin time assay test when the thromboplastin reagent developed by the first International Reference Preparation is used. The reagent was developed to prevent variability in prothrombin time testing results and provide uniformity in monitoring therapeutic levels for coagulation during oral anticoagulation therapy.


an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the heart and adjacent large blood vessels.


surgical removal of a hypertrophied muscle.


the inflammatory process that causes nodules to form in the myocardial tissue; the nodules become scar tissue over time. Inflammation of the heart muscle.

pericardial effusion

a buildup of fluid in the pericardial space.

pericardial friction rub

friction sound heard over the fourth left intercostal space near the sternum; a classic sign of pericarditis.


excision of part or all of the pericardium.


surgical perforation of the pericardium.


inflammation of the pericardium.


small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin that appear in certain illnesses and bleeding disorders.


a backward flowing, as in the backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.

rheumatic fever

a hypersensitivity reaction to antigens of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.


the constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice, such as a cardiac valve.


the formation of a clot and inflammation within a vein.


cutting through a valve.


plastic or restorative surgery on a valve, especially a cardiac valve.

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