(a) Conformists accept the culturally defined goals and the prescribed means to achieve those goals. They work, save, go to school, and follow the legitimate paths. Some excel, some remain average. Conformists will accept (though not necessarily achieve) the goals of our society and the means it approves for achieving them.
(b) Retreatism is the adaptation of people who give up both the goals (can't make it) and the means (why try?) and retreat into a world of drug addiction and alcoholism. They have internalized the value system and therefore are under internal pressure not to innovate. This mode allows for an escape into a nonproductive, nonstriving lifestyle. The pressures were too great; the opportunities were unacceptable.
(c) Innovators accept society's goals but since they have few legitimate means of achieving them, they design their own means for getting ahead. The means may be illegitimate such as burglary, embezzlement, or even vandalism (for recognition) or legitimate such as designing a new product, producing and publishing your music, etc. Such illegitimate forms of innovation are certainly not restricted to the lower class.
(d) Ritualists abandon the goals they once believed in to be within reach and resign themselves to their present lifestyles. They play by the rules or follow some other routine. They may hold middle-management jobs, live to work, to earn and find solace in a two week vacation in the summer.
(e) Rebels reject both cultural goals and the legitimate means to achieve them. Many individuals substitute their own goals (get rid of the establishment) and their own means (protest). They have an alternate scheme for a new social structure, however ill-defined.
(a) Social disorganization theory states rates of crime and delinquency rise as a result of the breakdown of effective social bonds, family and neighborhood associations, and social controls in neighborhoods and communities. Social disorganization theory focuses on the development of high crime areas in which there is a disintegration of conventional values caused by rapid industrialization, increased immigration, and urbanization.
[Rapid changes in industrialization or urbanization or increased immigration.] ---->
[Decline in the effectiveness of institutional and informal social control forces in communities or neighborhoods; that is, social disorganization] ---->
[Development of delinquency areas, as exemplified by high rates of delinquency and the existence of delinquent traditions and values in specific geographical areas or neighborhoods.]
(b) Differential association theory maintains that people learn to commit crime as a result of contact with antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns. The social influences that people encounter determine their behavior. Whether a person becomes law-abiding or ciminal depends on contacts with criminal values, attitudes, definitions and behavior patterns. Crime is learned through social interaction ---> people come into contact with definitions favorable/unfavorable to violations of the law ---> the ratio of criminal to noncriminal determines whether a person will engage in criminal behavior.
(c) Culture conflict theory states that different groups learn different conduct norms (rules governing behavior) and that the conduct norms of some groups may clash w/ conventional middle class rules. DAT is based on the learning of criminal (or deviant) norms or attitudes, whereas culture conflict theory focuses on the source of these criminal norms and attitudes. Conduct norms--norms that regulate our daily lives--are rules that reflect the attitudes of the groups to which each of us belongs. Conduct norms of different groups may conflict.
Social control theory focuses on techniques and strategies that regulate human behavior and lead to conformity or obedience to society's rules---the influences of family and school, religious beliefs, moral values, friends, and even beliefs about government.
Basically, the more involved and committed a person is to conventional activities and values and the greater the attachment to parents, loved ones, and friends, the less likely that person is to violate society's rules and to jeopardize relationships and aspirations.
According to Ross, belief systems, rather than specific laws, guide what people do and universally serve to control behavior.
Social bonds that promote socialization and conformity: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. The stronger these bonds, the less likelihood of delinquency.
-Attachment to parents: youths who have formed a significant attachment to a parent refrain from delinquency b/c the consequences of the act may jeopardize the relationship.
*amount of time the child spends with parents, particularly the presence of a parent at times when the child is tempted to act delinquently
*the intimacy of communication between parent and child
*the affectional identification between parent and child
-Attachment to school: academic incompetence leads to poor school performance --> dislike of school --> rejection of teachers and administration as authorities --> delinquency
*appreciation for the institution, perception of how he or she is received by teachers and peers and level of achievement in class
-Attachment to parents and school > bond formed with peers
-Commitment to or investment in conventional lines of action--that is, support of and participation in social activities that tie the individual to the society's moral or ethical code
-stakes in conformity or commitments: vocational aspirations, educational expectations, educational aspirations
-Involvement or preoccupation with activities that promote the interests of society.
-This bond is derived from involvement in school-related acitivites (such as homework) rather than in working class adult activities (such as smoking and drinking)
-A person who is busy doing conventional things has little time for deviant activities.
-belief consists of assent to the society's value system. The value system of any society entails respect for its laws and for the people and institutions that enforce them
-If young people no longer believe laws are fair, their bond to society weakens, and the probability they will commit delinquent acts increases.
Containment theory analyzes relationship between personal and social controls. Containment theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency.
Outer containment or the structural buffer that holds the person in bounds can come in the following forms:
-A role that provides a guide for a person's activities
-A set of reasonable limits and responsibilities
-An opportunity to achieve status
-Cohesion among members of a group including joint activity and togetherness
-A sense of belongingness
-Identification w/ one or more persons within the group
-Provisions for supplying alternative methods and means for satisfaction
Inner containment or personal control is ensured by
-A good self-concept
-A strong ego
-A well developed conscience
-A high frustration tolerance
-A high sense of responsibility
According to Reckless, the probability of deviance is directly related to the extent to which internal pushes (such as a need for immediate gratification, restlessness and hostility), external pressures (such as poverty, unemployment and blocked opportunities) and external pulls are controlled by one's inner and outer containment.
The primary containment factor is found in self-concept, or the way one views oneself in relation to other and to the world.
A strong self-concept coupled with some additional inner controls (such as a strong conscience and sense of responsibility), plus outer controls, makes delinquency highly unlikely.
Internalized control according to Francis Ivan Nye argued that self-regulation, was a product of guilt aroused in the conscience when norms have been internalized. Indirect control comes from an individual's identification with noncriminals and a desire not to embarrass parents and friends by acting against their expectations. Nye believes that social control involves "needs satisfaction," by which he means that control depends on how well a family can prepare the child for success at school, with peers, and in the workplace. Direct control, a purely external control, depends on rules, restrictions, and punishments.
Labeling theory declares that the reactions of other people and the subsequent effects of those reactions create deviance.
-Once it becomes known a person has engaged in deviant acts ---> he or she is segregated ---> label ("thief," "*****," "junkie") is attached ---> this process of segregation creates "outsiders" or outcasts from society who begin to associate with others like them
-Deviants react by continuing to engage in the behavior society expects of them. Through this process, their self-images gradually change as well. They key factor is the label that is attached to an individual: "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences."
Charles Horton Cooley, William I. Thomas, and George Herbert Mead, viewed the human self as formed through a process of social interaction, were called social interactionists. Mead compared the impact of social labeling to "the angel with the fiery sword at the gate" who can cut one off from the world to which he belonds. Labeling separates the good from the bad, the conventional from the deviant. Mead's interest in deviance focused on the social interactions by which an individual becomes deviant. The person is not just a fixed structure whose action is the result of certain factors acting upon it. Rather, social behavior develops in a continuous process of action and reaction. The way we perceive ourselves, our self-concept, is built not only on what we think of ourselves but also on what others think of us.
Frank Tannenbaum described the creation of a criminal as a process: breaking windows, climbing onto roofs, and playing truant are all normal parts of the adolescent search for excitement and adventure.
A struggle for power is a basic feature of human existence. It is by means of such power struggles that various interest groups manage to control lawmaking and law enforcement. Conflict theorists vs. consensus theorists over the creation of crime and criminal justice.
Consensus model: Members of society consider certain acts so threatening to community survival that they designate these acts as crimes ---> If vast majority share this view the group has acted by consensus. The model assumes that members of society by and large agree on what is right and wrong and that law is the codification of the agreed-upon social values. Laws are mechanisms to settle disputes that arise when individuals stay too far from what the community considers acceptable. According to Durkheim, "an act is criminal when it offends strong and defined states of the collective conscience. Deviant acts are normal because they cause society to unite against a deviant and reaffirm their commitment to shared values.
Conflict model: Conflict theory has its nuts in rebellion and the questioning of values. Labeling theorists and traditional criminologists focused on the crime, criminal and the labeling of the criminal by the system, however, conflict theorists questioned the system itself. They argued if people agree on the value system, why are so many people in rebellion, why are there so many crimes, so many punitive threats, so many people in prison? If the criminal law supports the collective communal interest, why do so many people deviate from it? Laws do not exist for the collective good, they represent the interests of specific groups that have the power to get them enacted. The key in conflict model is power. Politicians, those who are able to make things happen. The theory suggests that those in power work to keep the powerless at a disadvantage.