28 terms

Georgia Virtual Learning: Chemical Oceanography Terms

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Polar
Characteristic of molecules that have slightly positively-charged and slightly negatively-chared ends
Cohesion
The act of molecules cohering or sticking to one another
Adhesion
The act of molecules adhering or sticking to other molecules
Capillary action
The act of water molecules moving up through a narrow tube due to the properties of cohesion and adhesion
Universal solvent
Water is referred to as the universal solvent because many substances dissolve easily in water
Specific heat
Water resists temperature changes when it absorbs or releases heat
Heat capacity
Also known as specific heat, it is the measure of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree.
Hydrogen bonds
Bonds that are formed between negatively charged atoms and hydrogen
Latent heat of vaporization
The amount of heat released or absorbed by a substance as it changes phases (i.e., solid, liquid, or gas)
Hydrosphere
All the water found on, under, and over the surface of Earth
Evaporation
The process of the water in rivers, lakes, or the oceans turing to vapor due to the sun's energy
Transpiration
The evaporation of water into the atmosphere from the leaves and stems of plants
Respiration
The process organisms use to take food and convert it into energy. The process yields carbon dioxide and water as a by-product.
Condensation
The process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water
Precipitation
When water collects in the atmosphere by the process of condensation, it falls in the form of precipitation (i.e. rain, sleet, hail)
Infiltration
The process of water sinking into the ground
Runoff
The flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flow over the earth's surface
Hydrologic cycle
The circulation and conservation of the Earth's water
Salinity
The saltiness of a body of water
Desalination
Referring to one of the many processes of removing salt and other minerals from water
pH
The measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution based on the dissolved hydrogen ions
Buffers
A solution that contains a weak acid or weak base that allows the pH of a solution to remain stable when acids or bases are added
Dissolved oxygen
The amount of oxygen present in water — a certain amount is required for aquatic life
Diatomic
Molecule made up of only two atoms
Manganese
Free element often found in many minerals, important for living things, but can be toxic in high levels
Phosphorus
Chemical element most often found in inorganic rocks critical for livings things as it is found in DNA
Nitrogen
Common element naturally occurring as a gas, but often changes form as it cycles throughout the Earth
Silicon
Metalloid element found on the period table essential to living things and often used in technology
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