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A science that draws on the methods and knowledge of geology, chemistry, physics, and biology to study all aspects of the ocean


The measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape or topography of the ocean floor.


A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.stands for sound navigation and range


a small underwater craft used for deep-sea research

continental margin

a boundary between a continent and adjacent ocean basin floor

continental shelf

A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent

continental slope

A steep incline leading down from the edge of the continental shelf

submarine canyons

deep, steep-sided valleys cut into the continental slope

turbidity currents

dense current that carries large amounts of sediment down the continental crust

continental rise

Found in regions where trenches are absent. Where the continental slope merges into a more gradual incline. Has turbidity currents that follow submarine canyons deposit sediment that forms deep-sea fans.

ocean basin floor

area of the deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge

abyssal plains

Are deep and incredibly flat features in fact these regions are likely the most level places on Earth.


An underwater volcanic peak rising from the ocean floor and having a peaked or flat-topped summit below the surface of the sea.

mid-ocean ridge

An underwater mountain chain where new ocean floor is formed

seafloor spreading

The process that creates new sea floor as plates move away from each other at the mid-ocean ridges

terrigenous sediments

land; mineral grades eroded from continental rock and transported to the ocean

biogenous sediments

seafloor sediment of biological origin, such as sea shells and skeletons of marine life

calcareous ooze

Ooze composed mostly of the hard remains of organisms containing calcium carbonate.

siliceous ooze

biogenous sediment composed of the silica based shells of single-celled animals and algae

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