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Chapter 10 - Teaching and learning in Occupational Therapy
Terms in this set (58)
What is learning?
Takes place within the learner and can be defined as the acquisition of skills or information that changes a person's behavior, attitudes, insights, or perceptions
What is teaching?
Refers to the process of instructing and helping other people acquire information
How does the OT practitioner teach clients motor performance?
By providing the environment and designing and guiding the experience that facilitate learning
OT practitioners working in physical dysfunction setting teach motor skills to?
Help clients engage in desired occupations
What is motor learning?
Permanent acquisition of a new skill as a result of practice and experience
What are the stages of motor learning?
1. Cognitive learning
2. Associative stage
3. Autonomous stage
What is the cognitive stage?
- Talk and think through steps
- Guide movement
- Ex: a person talking them self through each dressing step
What is the associative stage?
- Connect the task with previous experience
- Ex: A person may remember that a few days ago the shirt was positioned upside down on the bed which made the process of putting it on easier
* Makes connection without thinking it through and turns the shirt around without verbalizing the step
What is the autonomous stage?
- Movement is performed efficiently without conscious thought
- The learner no longer thinks consciously about the movement but can perform them quickly, efficiently, and adjust to changes
- Ex: Person picks up the clothing without hesitation and adjusts it for directions and variation
What are the two types of motor learning?
- Procedural learning
- Declarative learning
What is procedural learning?
- Involves mastering movements or techniques
- The process and steps of how movements are preformed
- Task are broken broken down into steps
What do practitioners include in procedural learning?
Demonstrative instructions followed by practice and feedback
What is declarative learning?
Depends more on memory and other analytic skills and refers to the descriptive sequencing of events
When is declarative learning often used?
Before procedural learning
Declarative learning is apart of what stage of motor learning?
Cognitive, when learner talks self through sequence
What can declarative learning be related to?
A story: First, I do this.......Second, I do this.....
What is the dynamical systems views?
Examines the relationship between the individual, the task, and the environment
In the dynamical system, what is individual?
The influence of physical, cognitive, and social-emotional client factors on performance
- Know medical history
In the dynamical system, what is task?
Analysis of the demands of meaningful activities in relation to client characteristics
- "Just right challenge"
- Task analysis
In the dynamical system, what is environment?
Cultural, physical, social, personal, and temporal contexts will influence performance
What are the motor learning principles?
Transfer of learning and feedback
In motor learning principles, what is transfer of learning?
Practice in realistic but different setting using similar equipment
- Return of performance during therapy dot not ensure retention of skills or generalization of skills to other situation context
In motor learning principles, what are the types of feedback?
Modeling or demonstration
Intrinsic and extrinsic feedback
In feedback, what is modeling or demonstration?
Practitioners use this to help clients see the desired action
- Demonstration should be given throughout the practice as needed but should not be accompanied by verbal commentary
What does research show in regard to modeling or demonstration?
It the most effective when it is given before the client practices the skill and in the early stages of skill acquiisiton
In feedback, what is verbal instruction?
Should be brief, highlight the main cues, and be carefully timed
- Verbal cues should be used for major aspects of the movement and repeated so that the client can use these cues
- Practitioners may limit verbal cues, especially when the client is performing the movement
In feedback, what is intrinsic feedback?
The learner receives intrinsic feedback as a natural consequence of performing the task
- Feedback arises from sensory stimulation to tactile receptors, proprioceptors, a d visual and vestibular systems while performing the task and after the task is completed
In feedback, what is extrinsic feedback?
Feedback about performance from an outside source such as an OT practitioner or a mechanical devices
The two types of extrinsic feedback are?
Knowledge of performance (KP)
Knowledge of results (KR)
In extrinsic feedback, what is knowledge of performance?
Verbal feedback about the process or performance provides the client with information about the movements progressing toward the goal of the motor skill
- Feed back during the movement
In extrinsic feedback, what is knowledge of results?
The OT practitioner provides feedback about the outcomes, product, or results of the motor action
- Feed back after the action is done
What is blocked practice?
Or Massed practice
- Involves repeated performance of the same motor skill
- Provides limited learning
-No opportunity for alternative activities to:
* Cause some forgetting and reformulation of the solution to motor problem
*Process that enhances long-term learning and retention
- Increase of muscle strength
What is random practice?
- Involves repetition of the same motor patterns and formulation of plans to solve motor problems
- Appropriate when several task are planned
- Variability requires client to reformulate solution to motor problems each time
In random practice, what is contrived activities?
Can be used when task is unable to be replicated
In random practice, what is preparatory activities?
Help client specific components of motor task
- Should be used sparingly
The stages of motor learning are?
In the stages of motor learning, skill acquisition is?
The client understands the idea of the movement but has not learned it
- Errors are common
- Performance is inefficient and inconsistent
- Frequent repetition and feedback are necessary
- Mass Practice schedule is generally used
What is mass practice schedule?
Performed frequently, on a daily schedule
- This practice schedule is found in rehabilitation programs
In the stages of motor learning, skill refinement is?
Client demonstrates improved performance
- Fewer and less significant errors
- Increased consistency and efficiency of movement
- Distributed practice schedule used
What is distributed practice schedule?
Includes delays (or breaks) between sessions
- May receive training one or two times a week as would be the norm in a fixed home program or fixed outpatient program
In the stages of motor learning, skill retention is?
Clients perform movement and achieve function goals
- Random practice schedule most effective
- Object is to retain and transfer the skill
What is random practice schedule?
Empowers clients to practice at their own pace
- the objective at this stage is to retain the skill and transfer that skill to different setting
Motor learning occurs more successfully when activity is?
In motor learning, What is whole learning?
Simple and discrete task usually learned best through this, client practices the entire task at one time
- Example: A transfer from wheelchair to bed would be considered a simple task and often can be learned as one procedure
In motor learning, progressive-part learning?
Teach task in steps
- Clients may learn intermediate skills and serial task more easily through this style of learning
- Example: Dance step sequence might be considered an intermediate skill. It require walking or stepping to a beat and various movements between and within limns while moving on a diagonal with a partner
In motor learning, what is pure-part learning?
Learning a part alone
- Example: A person cutting food on a plate, whether the individual cuts the meat or the vegetables first it does not matter. All types of cutting are required
In motor learning, whole-to-part-to-whole learning?
Generally leads to best retention when learning a complex skill
- Teaching the whole, breaking into parts, re-teaching parts
- Example:Putting on a necktie with one hand
What is mental practice?
Involves imagery or rehearsing motor performance mentally
- Also refereed to as visualization, imagery, or mental rehearsal
- Can help facilitate the acquisition of new skills and the relearning of old ones
- Can be accomplished by requiring a client to review a videotape or watch a performance and then reflect on it before attempting it
- Involves visualizing oneself practicing the movement repeatedly
- Example: Athletes use this to refine motor skills
What are the principles and methods of teaching?
Characteristics of an effective teacher
Individual and group intervention
Teaching and learning process
In the principles and methods of teaching, Characteristics of an effective teacher?
- Effective teacher are enthusiastic about the learning content, positive, realistic, accepting, empathetic, and nonjudgmental toward the learners
- Effective teacher give positive and honest reinforcement to learners and observes and analyzes their behaviors to evaluate the outcome of learning
-They are flexible, adaptable, attentive, and able to motivate
- Enhance learning, independence, and personal control
In the principles and methods of teaching, Individual treatment or group intervention?
- Group members goals require group interaction or the sharing of a common goal by members
- Smaller groups are more practical for motor learning
In the principles and methods of teaching, teaching and learning process?
- Is a systematic problem-solving process designed to facilitate learning
- Involves four basic elements: assessment, design of the plan, instruction, and feedback/evaluation
The teaching-learning process, assessment
- Readiness for learning
The teaching-learning process, design of the teaching plan
- Consider the clients, the activity, and the enviroment
- Occupational therapist is responsible for planning intervention after assessing the learner
The teaching-learning process, Instruction
- Therapists provide the "Just-right challenge"
- Pacing and grading
- Active participation
The teaching-learning process, feedback and evaluation
Reinforcement must be used cautiously
What are the teaching learning process instructions?
- Preparation: Pre-instruction phase
*Task analysis to select teaching methods
*Preparation of environment
-Demonstration: Motivation and instruction phase
-Return demonstration: performance phase
- Follow up: guided independence phase
What are the methods of teaching?
- The therapist finds the best method or combination of methods
* The verbal instruction method uses the auditory system
*The verbal instruction and demonstration method uses the auditory and visual system
* The touch, proprioception, and motion method uses the somatosensroy and vestibular system
- Guiding is special form of tactile, proprioceptive, and vestibular input
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