CIS 300 Chapter 10
Terms in this set (48)
What does developing an information system involve, and beyond programming or technical expertise, what does this development require
Developing an information system involves all five components: hardware, software, data, procedures, and people. Establishing the systems' goals, setting up the project, and determining requirements require business knowledge and management skill.
What tasks require technical expertise
Tasks like building computer networks and writing computer programs require technical skills.
What does creating data models or designing procedures require
Creating data models requires the ability to interview users and understand their view of the business activities. Designing procedures requires business knowledge and an understanding of group dynamics.
What are the three sources of software, which apply to information systems, and why is this
Off-the shelf, off-the shelf with adaptation, and tailor-made. Although all three sources pertain to software, only two of them pertain to information systems. Unlike software, information systems are never off-the-shelf. Tailor-made
Considering the IRS case, what must the manager of a development project enable
They must enable: system definition, requirements analysis, component design, implementation, system maintenance. The organization will assign a few employees to define the new system, to assess its feasibility, and to plan the project.
Concerning enterprise-wide information systems, what is the first step
The first step is to define the goals and scope of the new information system.
Why is system's development risky
Many projects are never finished. Of those that are finished, some are 200 or 300 percent over budget. It's very difficult to determine the requirements of a system. The requirements are always changing, even as the system is being developed. Scheduling and budgeting are difficult to determine. Technology will change throughout the system development process. As development teams become larger, the average contribution per worker decreases and causes diseconomies of scale.
With respect to changing requirements, what are the two alternatives and outcomes
Stop work and rebuild the system in accordance with the new requirements. Or they could finish the system.
With respect to diseconomies of scale, what happens as the development team becomes larger
As development teams become larger, the average contribution per worker decreases.
Besides the coordination issue, what problems emerge when adding staff
Adding more people to a late project makes the project later. The costs of training new people can overwhelm the benefit of their contribution.
What is the dilemma faced by managers of software development projects
They can increase work per employee by keeping the team small.
What is the systems development life cycle *SDLC) and the five-phases of the process
SDLC is the classical process used to develop information systems. The five phase process is: System definition, requirements analysis, component design, Implementation, and system maintenance.
What is done in requirements analysis, and how is its output used
The resulting project plan is the input to the second phase, requirements analysis. Here, developers identify the particular features and functions of the new system.
How are the goal and purpose of a new system defined
Business planning process System definition Requirements Analysis.
At the first step, the development team defines the goal and purpose of the new system in terms of these purposes.
Regarding scope, what is the key factor for DSI and what are some other ways of delineating scope
A definition of project ...... greatly simplifies requirements determination and other subsequent development work. In other systems, the .... might be delineated by specifying the users that will be involved, or the business processes that will be involved, or the plants, offices, and factories that will be involved.
What is the goal in assessing feasibility, what are the four dimensions of feasibility, and regarding cost and schedule what type of analysis is required
The aim is to eliminate obviously no sensible projects before forming a project development team and investing significant labor. The purpose is to eliminate any obviously infeasible ideas as soon as possible. It has four dimensions: cost, schedule, technical, and organizational.
To what does technical feasibility refer
It refers to whether existing information technology is likely to be able to meet the needs of the new system.
Who are the typical personnel on a development team, what is a systems analyst, and what do they integrate
Typical personnel on a development team are a manager, system analysts, programmers, software testers, and users. Systems analysts are IT professionals who understand both business and technology. Systems analysts integrate the work of the programmers, testers, and users.
What other professionals might be required on a development team
They may also include hardware and communications specialists, database designers and administrators, and other IT specialists.
How does team composition change over the life of the project
During requirements definition, the team will be heavy with systems analysts. During design and implementation, it will be heavy with programmers, testers, and database designers. During integrated testing and conversion, the team will be augmented with testers and business users.
What is the important point regarding users
The important point is for users to have active involvement and to take ownership of the project throughout the entire development process.
What is the first major task of the project team
Is to plan the project.
Provide some examples of requirements
If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong. Requirements also include frequently and how fast it will be produced. Some specify the volume of data to be stored and processed. Typically, system analysts interview users and record the results. Users also tend to focus on the tasks they are performing at the time of the interview. Security is another important category.
What are some sources of requirements, and what is another important category of requirements
Examples of requirements are the contents of a report or the fields in a data entry form. Requirements include not only what is to be produced, but also how frequently and how fast it is to be produced. Some requirements specify the volume of data to be stored and processed. Security is another important category of requirements.
Regarding hardware, what are several key questions that might be asked
Are there special needs or restrictions on hardware? Is there an organizational standard governing what kinds of hardware may or may not be used? Must the new system use existing hardware? What requirements are there for communications and network hardware?
Regarding procedures, what are two things that should be considered
The team should consider requirements for procedures and personnel.
When is the best time to change a requirement
In the requirements phase. Changing a requirement at this stage is simply a matter of changing a description.
In designing each component, typically, what is done
The tea, designs each component by developing alternatives, evaluating each of those alternatives against the requirements, and then selecting amount those alternatives.
For the DSI system what would the team need to determine about hardware
For the DSI system, the team would need to determine what hardware is required to read and write to the RFID devices.
For off-the-shelf software, what must the design team do, and for custom-developed programs, what must the design team do
Off-the-shelf software: the team must determine candidate products and evaluate them against the requirements. Custom-developed programs: the team produces design documentation for writing program code.
Regarding system testing, what do developers need to design, devise and verify
Developers need to design and develop test plans and record the results of tests. They need to devise a system to assign fixes to people and to verify that fixes are correct and complete.
What is a test plan and what should a comprehensive test plan cause
Test Plan: Groups of sequences of actions that users will take when using the new system. A comprehensive test plan should cause every line of program code to be executed.
Regarding system testing, what is the role of the user
Users should be involved in system testing. Users have the final say on whether the system is ready for use.
What is Beta testing and what shape should systems undergoing beta testing possess
Beta testing is the process of allowing future system users to try out the new system on their own. Software vendors like Microsoft often release beta versions of their products for users to try and to test. Such users report problems back to the vendor. Beta testing is the last stage of testing.
What system conversion processes should be used and which one should be avoided
The ones that should be used are: Pilot, Phased, and parallel. The one that should be avoided is taking the plunge.
What is pilot installation and its main advantage
The organization implements the entire system on a limited portion of the business. The advantage of pilot implementation is that if the system fails, the failure is contained within a limited boundary.
What is the factor that limits the use of phased implementation
Some systems are so tightly integrated that they cannot be installed in phased pieces.
What is parallel implementation why is it expensive, and what is its main advantage
Parallel installation: the new system runs in parallel with the old one until the new system is tested and fully operational. It's expensive because the organization incurs the costs of running both systems. It provides an easy fallback position if the new system fails.
During the maintenance phase, what should be tracked and what should a failure tracking database contain
It records who reported the problem, who will make the fix or enhancement, what the status of that work is, and whether the fix or enhancement has been tested and verified by the originator.
What is a patch, what is a service pack, and how do they differ
Patch: A group of fixes for high-priority failures that can be applied to existing copies of a particular product. Service pack: A large group of fixes that solve low-priority software problems. Users apply service packs in much the same way that they apply patches, except that service packs typically involve fixes to hundreds or thousands of problems.
What might you be surprised to know (I knew from previous work experience)
All commercial software products are shipped with known failures.
What is the maintenance a start of and what does the decision to enhance restart
The maintenance phase starts another cycle of the SDLC process. The decision to enhance a system is a decision to restart the systems development process.
How is the SDLC supposed to operate but what must often be repeated, why might this occur, and what is the ramification of this
The process is supposed to operate in a sequence of non-repetitive phases. When design work begins and the team evaluates alternatives, they learn that some requirements statements are incomplete or missing. At that point, the team needs to do more requirements work, yet that phase is supposedly finished. On some projects, the team goes back and forth between requirements and design so many times that the project seems to be out of control.
What are three reasons for fantasy estimates
Rapid application development, object-oriented development, and extreme programming.
What are two problems with extensive requirements, and what is analysis paralysis
Analysis paralysis: When too much time is spent documenting project requirements.
What has emerged for developing systems and what is this a series of
Development methodologies have emerged for developing systems through a series of small, manageable chunks.