9.5 Network Segmentation

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is the process of dividing the network to overcome problems and increase network performance, maximize bandwidth, and reduce congestion.
Network segmentation
is any network or subnetwork where devices share the same transmission medium and where packets can collide.
collision domain
Collisions naturally increase as the number of devices in a collision domain increase.
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is any network or subnetwork where computers can receive frame-level broadcasts from their neighbors. As you add devices to a network segment, the amount of broadcast traffic on a segment also increases.
broadcast domain
happens when broadcast traffic is sent, regenerated, and responded to. In this condition, the amount of broadcast traffic consumes network bandwidth and prevents normal communications.
broadcast storm
Segmentation may increase the number of both the collision and broadcast domains. Membership within collision or broadcast domains differs depending on the connection device used.
Hub collision domain
All devices connected to the hub are in the same collision domain.
hub broadcast domain
All devices connected to a single port are in the same collision domain (each port is its own collision domain).
bridge or switch collision domain
All devices connected to the bridge or the switch are in the same broadcast domain.
bridge or switch broadcast domain
All devices connected to a single interface are in the same collision domain.
router collision domain
All devices accessible through an interface (network) are in the same broadcast domain. Each interface represents its own broadcast domain if the router is configured to not forward broadcast packets.
router broadcast domain
In considering a network expansion solution, it is important to identify the connectivity problems you need to resolve, and then identify the device that is best suited for that situation. The main differences between routers, switches, and bridges are the range of services each performs and the OSI layer at which they operate.
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Filter broadcast traffic to prevent broadcast storms
Reduce the number of devices within a broadcast domain (effectively increasing the number of broadcast domains)
Enforce network security
choose:
router
Provide guaranteed bandwidth between devices
Reduce collisions by decreasing the number of devices in a collision domain (effectively creating multiple collision domains)
Reduce the number of devices within a broadcast domain (creating multiple broadcast domains on a switch is done by using virtual LANs (VLANs))
Implement full-duplex communication
choose:
switch
Isolate data traffic to one network segment
Link unlike physical media (e.g. twisted pair and coaxial Ethernet) of the same architecture type
Choose
bridge
In general, follow these guidelines to make decisions about the appropriate connectivity device.

Use a bridge to segment the network (divide network traffic) and to provide fault tolerance.
Use a switch to reduce collisions and offer guaranteed bandwidth between devices.
Use a router or a switch with virtual LANs (VLANs) to filter broadcast messages, implement security, or connect different networks.
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