17 terms

Greek Architecture and The Parthenon

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Why was the Parthenon built?
to glorify athena, obsession of perfection, old parthenon was destroyed, made it to show triumph over perians
Chief Architects of Parthenon
Iktinos and Kallikrates
Chief Sculptor of Parthenon
Phidias
The Statue of Athena Parthenos
purpose of greek temples was to house a cult statue
athenas eyes glinted with gems
athenas right hand held aloft crowned Victory
her helmet is a sphinx flanked by two winged griffins
ivory Medusa on her breast
order
series of architectural systems that give aesthetic definition and decoration to the post and lintel system
Post and Lintel
simple system of architectural construction in which the horizontal members are supported by vertical supports
Doric Order
1. column- freestanding cylindrical support
2. capital- top of column, plain
3. Entablature
a. architrave-lowest part of entablature
b. frieze- middle section of entablature (trigylphs: decorated with vertical grooves, metopes: square decorated panels)
c. cornice- projecting crowning member of the entablature
NO BASE!!!!
Ionic
1. column- richly decorated, lighter and more elegant than the doric column
2. scroll like motif called a VOLUTE
3. frieze- a continuous sculptural band
The Parthenon Architecture
1. Doric Order
2. columns of peristyle taper on a slight arc as they reach the top of the building (straight line would have made it curved)
ENTASIS: tension, bulge
Corinthian
richly decorated base
lighter and more elegant column than doric
capital- decorated with acanthus leaves
frieze- continuous frieze
Harmonious Proportions
8 columns at the facade, seventeen columns at the flanks
conforms to the ratio of 9:4, all about proportions
Parthenon Sculputure
pediment- triangular area supported by the entablature
entasis-slight bulge
problems: hard to see pediment because of height, solutions: hierarchical size, figure in center is large, high relief
East Pediment
depicted birth of athena
West Pediment
illustrates the contest between athena and poseidon
The Doric Metopes
CIVILIZED VS. UNCIVILIZED
Lapiths vs centaurs
greeks vs amazons
greeks vs trojans
olympians vs titans
Ionic Frize
illustrated the Great PANATHENAIC PROCESSION which was held every 4 years where the city presented the wool robe (peplos) to Athena
masterpiece of low relief
lord elgin from england took it
The Erechtheion
second largest structure on the acropolis
ionic temple
mythical contest between athena and poseidon
porch of maidens- 6 stately maidens (caryatids) support an entablature