Cancer (Exam 3)


Terms in this set (...)

Cancer Cells can
divide indefinitely
What is Cancer
Uncontrolled mitosis
What does uncontrolled mitosis lead to?
To producing excess cells that are abnormal
What is the American Cancer Society definition of Cancer
is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. If the spread is not controlled, it can result in death
What is a Tumor
A mass of extra cells created by mitosis
What are the two forms of a tumor
What is a benign tumor
a tumor that contains cells that are not invasive and do not move in the body
What is a malignant tumor
a tumor that contain cells that can be invasive and have potential to move in the body
What is a metastasis
is the move meant of malignant cells with lymphatic fluids or blood to new locations in the body
Is Metastasis cancer?
Cancer spreads through the process of metastasis, which means
the shedding of malignant cells and the transport of those cells to different parts of the body
What is the worst term of cancer
In cancer, if metastasis has occurred and multiple site are affect,
the prognosis will be worse
Malignant cells are invasive and
interfere with the the function of healthy cells
Malignant cells no longer
perform the functions they are supposed to perform in the body
Malignant cells can put
pressure on surrounding tissues and organs
As a tumor grows, it can impinge on other tissue,
interfering with normal functioning and even causing death
Early Detection is Key, our ability to treat metastatic cancer now
is not mud better than it was in the 1970s
Early Detection is Key, Why so hard?
To Tell before it spreads or interferes with bodily function
Early Detection is Key, Common Early Detection tests:
PAP Test
Cancerous cells pop
up in everyone
It takes more than one (sometimes lots of) different things
to go wrong before a cell becomes cancerous
If a cell does beat the odds and become cancerous,
usually our body takes care of them before they replicate out of control
Our risk of nearly every type of cancer increases
with age
Characteristics of Cancer Cells #1
Lack of Contact inhibition
what does Lack of contact inhibition mean
normal cells stop dividing when they pile up on each other
Cancer Cells have no
contact inhibition
Normals cells divide until they
bump up against other cells or tissues, at which point they stop dividing
Cancer cells, however, ignore
the signal and continue to divide, pilling on top of one another
Characteristics of Cancer Cells #2
What is Immortality
A normal cell divides about 50 times, apoptosis is triggered and the cells dies
Can caner cells do immortality
They can not
Characteristics of Cancer Cells #3
Reversion to immature form
What is reversion to immature form?
This prevents cells from doing their normal job
why do cell cycle checkpoints fail, Changes to the DNA
(mutations) occur in a single cell
Changes to the DNA can
be inherited or induced
why do cell cycle checkpoints fail, Carcinogens are
factors known to increase the rate of mutations in cells
Why does Cancer Happen #1
Too many GROWTH FACTORS are presents
What are too many growth factors?
-Are proteins that stimulate the cel cycle
-they are required for normal mitosis
-but.. too many over stimulate the cell cycle
Why does cancer happen #2?
Mutation of protooncogenes
What are mutation of protooncogenes
-these are good
-they code for proteins to regulate the cell cycle
-When mutated they become oncogene (BAD)
Oncogenes can be activated by several factors
The term oncogene refers to
a gene that can cause cancer
Why does Cancer happen #3?
Mutation of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR gene
What are mutation Tumor Suppressor
-These are good
-they code for proteins that destroy malignant cells
-if mutated, the defense is lost
Why does Cancer Happen #4?
Mutations to DNA repair Genes
What are mutations to DNA repair genes
-These are good!
-They repair minor damage to the DNA
-If mutated, the repair function is lost
The prime suspects mutations in:
Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes
Other mutations also occur in:
-cell death genes
-cell signaling genes
-cell cycle checkpoint genes
-cellular senescence genes
-Cellular differentiation genes
-metastasis/invasion genes
-Carcinogen (activating genes, deactivating genes)
What is the most common analysis diagnose of cancer
What is a biopsy
Compare rate of mitosis to control value of the same tissue type; review size and shape of cells in the biopsy
Malignant cells may look
physically different
What is a type of cancer scan
PET Scan
What is a PET Scan
Positron Emission Tomography
What is entailed in a PET Scam
It involves drinking a glucose solution marked with radioactivity
What does a PET Scan track
scan tracks where the radioactivity goes in the body
____ percent of cancers, cells have a mutation that cause them to make extra enzymes to increase their rate of gylcolysis
What is Hyperplasia
increase in number of cells
What is Meta-transformation
from one type to another not genetic
What is Dys-Abnormal
Growth Genetic
What is Ana-Reversion to
immature cells
What is Grade 1
Cells differ slightly from normal cells
What is Grade 2
Cells are more abnormal than grade 1 cells
What is Grade 3
Cells are very abnormal and hard to differentiate
What is Grade 4
Cells are immature, primitive and undifferentiated. It is difficult to decide the origin of the cells
Whats Stage 0
The cancer is located only in the inner lining surface of an organ and is not invading the organ
Whats Stage 1
The cancer has not spread past the tissue or organ where it started
Whats stage 2
There is some local and regional spread of cancer, sometimes to lymph nodes
What is stage 3
There is extensive local and regional spread of cancer, usually to draining lymph nodes
What is Stage 4
The cancer has spread (metastasized) beyond the regional lymph nodes to distant parts of the body
What are Cancer Treatment Options
1. Surgery
2. Radiation
3. Chemotherapy
4. Inhibition of angigenesis
5. Immunotherapy
What happens in surgery
-cuts out the tumor
-not an option for all types of cancer
-goal is clean margins
-often involves follow up with other methods
radiation and chemotherapy do not
taret cancer cells specifically
what is radiation
recall that radiation exposure leads to formation of free radicals
How can radiation be given
Externally or Internally
What are the side effects of Radiation
Due to the death of normal cells which are also killed by exposure
Cells that divide fastest
are most damaged
What is Chemotherapy
Toxins that cause damage to cells that divide fast
How can Chemotherapy be given
Orally or Via Infusion
What are the side effects of Chemotherapy
Damage to healthy cells