elements pass from one organism to another and among parts of the biosphere through closed loops
includes volcanic eruptions, the formation and breakdown of rock, and major movements of matter within and below the surface of the earth
Chemical and Physical process
includes the formation of clouds and precipitation, the flow of running water, and the action of lightning
includes the mining and burning of fossil fuels, the clearing of land for building and farming, the burning of forests, and the manufacture and use of fertilizers
other soil bacteria obtains energy by converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, which is released into the atmosphere
How does matter move through the biosphere?
unlike the one way flow of energy, matter is recycled within and between ecosystems
How does water recycle through the biosphere?
water continuously moves between the oceans, the atmosphere, and land, sometimes outside living organisms and sometimes inside them
What is the importance of the main nutrient cycles?
every organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out life functions. Like water, nutrients pass through organisms and the environment through biogeochemical cycles. The three ways, or cycles that move carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the biosphere are especially critical for life.