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EXAM 3 IDS
im so dead but its almost over
Terms in this set (45)
John Quincy Adams
What: Is unpopular during his presidency, passes the tariff of abominations
Why: Creates democratic party, Adams-Clay merge into the Whigs. Argues in "La Amistad" case
Tariff of Abominations
Who: John Quincy Adams
What: high duties on wool, hemp, flax, and fur
Where: South Carolina, southern states
Why: affects farmers in the interior, makes adams even more unpopular
Who: Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon
What: By the 1820s, it came to represent the division between the free North and the slave South
When: line created 1700s, 1820s
Where: MD and PA
Why: people identified themselves by where they stand on the line, expanded the topic of slavery
Who: Born Isabella Baumfree (as a slave). Changed name to signify her journey for truth
What: Wore banner that said, "Proclaim liberty throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof." 6ft tall, deep, rich voice.
When: 1797, freed 1827
Why: First Woman Abolitionist
Election of 1828
Who: John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson
What: "Democrats" choose Jackson. "common man" and "spoils system" win the election. Jackson accused Adams of pimping for Russian Ambassador
Why: first example of "name-calling". Andrew Jackson becomes president
What: Mrs. Jackson died just prior to the inauguration (Jackson swore vengeance on those who had besmirched her name) The people have to call him "general" and not Mr. President
Why: Greatly expanded the power of the Presidency. 1835 - First Presidential Assassination Attempt
Indian Removal Act/ Trail Of tears
Who: Andrew Jackson, Indians
What: nearly ¼ die en route to Oklahoma. One of the most controversial actions made by Jackson. TOT (forced removal of all Indians towards west of the Mississippi river)
Where: Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Oklahoma
Why: Branded Jackson as a racist
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Who: Cherokee Chief John Ross, Georgia, Andrew Jackson
What: GA began passing laws that infringed on the Cherokee Nation (which had developed along Anglo-European traditions). Cherokee Chief John Ross sued in the Supreme Court. The Court first ruled that the case was moot. Had to go form the lower courts to the Supreme Court
When: 1831, 1832
Where: Georgia, "Cherokee Nation"
Why: Later, in Worcester v. GA (1832) (changed name of case), a case appealed from a lower court, the Court decided that GA could not enforce laws on Cherokee (Jackson ignored)
"Big Block of Cheese"
Who: Thomas Meacham, Andrew Jackson
What: The 1400-pound block of cheese was delivered to Jackson on New Year's Day, 1836. Was served to the public on February 22, 1837, as a sort of farewell party from Jackson to the people.
When: Jan 1, 1836. Feb 22, 1837
Where: White House
Why: This opening of the White House to the public makes the "Big Block of Cheese" symbolic of Jacksonian Democracy.
William Lloyd Garrison
Who: Writer, Publisher
What: Started paper called "The Liberator". Talks about slaves and why it should be rid of
Why: Official newspapper of the abolition movement
Alexis de Tocqueville
Who: writer, publisher
What: tours the US, makes a report. then goes back to Paris and writes "Democracy in America"
Where: United States, Paris
Why: Showcases how democracy is in the US, states that slavery is bad and is going to get worse; will lead to Civil War. United States are going to go in odds with Russia
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Who: Nat Turner, slave, minister
What: Is a minister and organizes a revolt, was a vision from "God". approx. 65 killed. Turner eluded capture for two months
When: August 1831
Where: Southampton, VA
Why: Resulted in stricter slave codes / Liberia mvmt. Only successful rebellion in history
Who: Andrew Jackson, John C. Calhoun
What: SC - under Senator John C. Calhoun (Adams' VP) - opposed the Tariff of Abominations, declaring a state's right to nullify ("South Carolina Exposition and Protest"). Jackson sent Navy into SC ports and fortified SC forts; called on Congress to pass the Force Bill
Where: South Carolina
Why: Congress reduced the tariff and SC backed down (but nullified the Force Bill)
Who: Andrew Jackson
What: The First National Bank's charter had run out in 1811; since everyone hated the FNB, it was not rechartered. A Second bank was chartered in 1816. Congress - under Henry Clay and Daniel Webster - rechartered the SNB in 1832 rather than waiting till its charter ran out in 1836 to embarrass Jackson. He removed all the money from the SNB and deposited it in several state banks
Where: DC, US
Why: The result was economic chaos that would last for the rest of the 1830s, reaching its peak in the Panic of 1837
Who: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
What: Art and Literature movement. "The American Scholar" (authored by Emerson) called for American independence from European literary traditions
Why: America starts painting Landscapes, and creates new art and culture for the US
Who: Martin Van Buren, Singbe Pieh, John Quincy Adams
What: a Spanish ship that was engaged in the slave trade. The Africans on board take over the ship. Last two guys are forced to take them home and run into a British ship. They go to Boston and go to the Supreme Court.
Where: Boston, MA
Why: Africans win and they go home, Singbe Pieh finds no one
Election of 1840
Who: William Henry Harrison
What: Hero of the world in 1812, People hate Martin Van Buren.
Why: Shortest Presidency in US History
What: Established Mormonism. Killed by a lynch mob in 1844. Brigham Young settles in Utah in 1847
When: NY, Utah
Why: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
Edgar Allan Poe
What: "The fall of the House of Usher"
Why: Father of Science-fiction, proof that American could bring Literature in new directions, the best example of Transcendentalism
What: Not a real railroad. A network of safe houses, led by conductors.
When: 1840- 1861
Where: All over the US, in safe houses
Why: gave freedom to about 3000 slaves
Who: Conductor of Underground Railroad
What: suffered massive head wound as a child which gave her problems her entire life, ultimately killing her nearly 75 years later. escaped in 1849, becoming a conductor on the URR
Where: MD, Auburn, NY
Why: first woman in US history to lead a military expedition that ultimately freed over 750 slaves. First African-American woman to be honored on a US Postage Stamp
Who: House of Representatives
What: antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received so that they could not become the subject of debate.
Why: postponed the concept of dealing with Slavery
Who: son of a slave woman and white master.
What: taught to read by master's wife; taught himself to write. escaped in 1838. sets up in Boston. "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass" (1845). advisor to Lincoln / recruited black soldiers in CW
When: 1817- 1895, 1845
Where: Boston, MA
Why: runs for VP in 1872, Freedom Party. US Ambassador to Haiti, 1890 (First black man to be an US ambassador)
Who: James K. Polk, British
What: Technological innovations could link distant places like Oregon and California that had once seemed remote. A belief that democracy must continue to grow in order to survive. A desire to expand the benefits of American civilization. Southerners acquire new lands for additional slave states. A need to develop new markets made the acquisition of Pacific ports a priority. Fear that Great Britain would try and block American annexation of Texas and might expand her own holdings in North America.
Why: leads to the war with Mexico and the need for more land
Who: Kit Carson and John C. Fremont, James Polk
What: Government gave 320 acres to anyone willing to move to Oregon; 20000 pioneers die on the trail
Why: leads to war with Mexico, many people died on their way to Oregon
War with Mexico
Who: General Zachary Taylor, James Polk, Mexico
What: Polk orders General Zachary Taylor and 3500 troops to Rio Grande to secure "TX" border (TX annexed to the US in 1845) April: US soldier found dead; Polk tells Congress, "American blood has been spilled on American soil." General Winfield Scott commands US forces
Why: Leads to Treaty, 1733 Americans die, US becomes a Pacific power.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Who: US, Mexico
What: US gets 500,000 square miles of Mexican territory (including future states of CA, NV, UT: most of NM and AZ; and parts of CO, WY, and TX). US/Mexican border set at Rio Grande. US pays $15 million to Mexico
When: March 1848
Why: US gets land and settles borders
What: stated that slavery should not be extended into any territory won from Mexico
Why: leads to the Free Soil Party
Seneca Falls Convention
Who: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
What: women's movement born out of the abolitionist movement. Women want to get rid of "separate spheres".
When: July 1848
Where: Seneca Falls NY
Why: The beginning of the women's movement in the U.S. A series of declarations was passed, "Declaration of Sentiments" ("We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal". Listed "injuries and usurpations" of men")
Free Soil Party
Who: James Polk
What: does not promote abolition; stops the extension of slavery to the west
Why: stop the expainsoon of slavery into the west
California Gold Rush
Who: Zachary Taylor
What: Gold is discovered in California, causes a flood of Americans to go to California (known as 49ers)
Where: Sutter's Mill, CA
Why: Road to Civil War begins
Compromise of 1850
Who: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Stephen A. Douglas
What: CA requested admission as a free state, once more leading to slave-state discontent. Five Parts to the Compromise:
CA admitted as a free state, NM and UT organized with no restrictions on slavery, TX boundaries reset and $10 million given for land ceded to NM Territory, DC outlaws slave trade (but not slavery itself), New Fugitive Slave Law enacted
Why: solved the issue about the new territory for a while
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Who: Harriet Beecher Stowe
What: showed the humanity of slaves for the first time. Worldwide sales of 1.5 million copies in 1850's alone
On meeting Stowe, President Lincoln said, "So, this is the woman who wrote the little book that started this big war."
Why: Opened the eyes to the people about slaves, caused the movement for the Civil War.
Who: Whigs, Free-Soilers, and abolitionists
What: promoted free white labor for the West. In 1856, ran John C. Fremont for President (lost
When: May 9, 1854
Why: started the influence of free white labor, Abraham Lincoln
Who: Franklin Pierce, James Gadsden
What: Since the end of the Mexican-American War, the Mesilla Valley in southern NM had been a disputed territory
Plans for the transcontinental railroad made clear the need for a route through northern Mexico. Pierce sent James Gadsden to negotiate with Santa Anna
Where: Santa Anna
Why: the Transcontinental Railroad could be completed, more land, cost $10 million
Stephen A. Douglas
Who: Senator (IL)
What: Groomed to be the Congressional successor to Clay
Why: "Popular Sovereignty"
Who: stephen douglas, president franklin peters
What: divided the land west of Missouri into two territories
Where: US, Kansas, Nebraska, utah, new mexico
Why: "Popular Sovereignty" enacted for the first time. caused problems with the decision on how states should enter (free/slave) started the bleeding kansas
Who: John Brown, James Buchanan
What: 200+ deaths over slavery issue,The pro-slavery "Lecompton" Constitution was legal, the anti-slavery "Topeka" Constitution was not. In 1857, new President James Buchanan supported the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution - in order to secure support of Southern Democrats - but making the idea of popular sovereignty irrelevant
When: May-Oct., 1856
Why: continued the tensions between the North and the South.
Who: Republican Senator Charles Sumner, Senator Andrew Butler
What: Butler's cousin, Congressman Preston Brooks (SC) came into the Senate chamber and beat Sumner to a bloody pulp with his cane
When: May 27, 1856
Where: Senate Chamber (fix)
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Who: Dred Scott (slave), Roger B. Taney, John Sanford
What: Dred Scot spent several years living in "free" territories. On master's death, Scott sued for freedom. Roger B Taney claimed blacks "not citizens" and therefore had no rights on which to sue, slaves were property and property rights were protected under the 5th Amendment
Where: Wisconsin, Missouri
Why: declared the NW Ordinance of 1787, the MO Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850 unconstitutional. Blacks were not citizens and could not sue.
Who: John Brown and 18 followers
What: followers raided arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA (expecting slaves to riseup). Brown caught, tried, and hanged. Transcendentalists likened Brown to Christ
Where: Harper's Ferry, VA
Why:The MS legislature passed resolutions that the election of a president from an anti-slavery party would be cause for the southern states to meet and consider options
Census of 1860
Who: Slaves, people
What: "The North"
19 free states
22 million people
70% of US railroads
$189 million in bank notes / $56 million in gold
15 slave states (only 11 secede)
9 million people (3.5 million of which were slaves)
$47 million in bank notes / $27 million in gold
Where: North, South
Why: Despite "agricultural" base of the South, the North produced most of the nation's food (the ONLY bulk crop of the South being cotton).
Election of 1860
Who: Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell, Stephen Douglas
What: With Democratic Party split North and South, Republican victory assured. lincoln did not advocate abolition (he acknowledged African-American equality on the basis of humanity)
Why: South promised secession if Lincoln won (SC becomes first to live up to this promise in December of 1860). Start of the Civil War
pro and anti slavery
• John C. Calhoun
o "weakens the government"
o Will lead to anarchy
o "people are born subject, instead of being both free and equal"
o "Slavery is part of our culture"
o "the black race is not as superior as the white race"
o "it is essential to have one superior race and the other as labors"
• North factor owners kept their immigrant workers in a form of wage-slavery
• Thomas R. Dew
o Virginia is the birthplace of blacks and a beneficial state to the other states
o "blacks are property that are too important"
o "taking down slavery = taking down the whole country"
• George Fitzhugh
o All labor is slave labor
o Preserve slavery = capitalism destroyed
o "we take care of slaves"
The slaves most opposed to freedom were the elderly
• Edmund Ruffine
o "taking over blacks have caused them to mature and be civilized"
o Fires 1st shot of CW
• Fredrick Douglas
• Harriet Tubman
• William Lloyd Garrison
• Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Abraham Lincoln
o "selfishness of man's nature
o "government cannot keep half slave and half free"
• John Brown
o "injustice to have one superior race over the other"
Northern Immigrants were treated just as bad as slaves
With the aspect of being Christians, many were finding it hard to live with slavery
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