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audience analysis

identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively

listening speaker

dialogical speaker who hears audience interests and concerns before, during, and after a speech

unmotivated audiences

lack a listening purpose or goal

random audience

attracted by a message that catches their attention; initially doing something else

passive audiences

unmotivated listeners who listen to accomplish other goals

motivated audiences

listen for a reason

self-selected audiences

choose to listen to a selected subject or speaker

homogeneous audiences

listeners who are similar in attitude

hostile audiences

listeners who are negative toward the topic or the speaker

demographic analysis

identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity


relevant or significant


heritage and cultural traditions, usually stemming from national and religious backgrounds


categories, often associated with stereotypes, based on physical characteristics

social category

culturally constructed category such as race and gender


clusters of traits culturally labeled as masculine, feminine, or androgynous

psychological profile

assessment of an audience's beliefs, values, and attitudes

direct methods

asking the audience members directly for their opinion by questionnaires or interviews, for example

indirect methods

assessing audiences by observation or secondhand sources

scaled questions

asking for responses along a continuum; used to assess attitudes


listeners' impressions of your character, intentions, and abilities that make you more or less believable

prior or extrinsic credibility

credibility that speakers bring to the speech because of their experience and reputation

demonstrated or intrinsic credibility

obvious knowledge the speaker shows during the speech

terminal credibility

final impression listeners have of a speaker

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