identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively
dialogical speaker who hears audience interests and concerns before, during, and after a speech
lack a listening purpose or goal
attracted by a message that catches their attention; initially doing something else
unmotivated listeners who listen to accomplish other goals
listen for a reason
choose to listen to a selected subject or speaker
listeners who are similar in attitude
listeners who are negative toward the topic or the speaker
identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity
relevant or significant
heritage and cultural traditions, usually stemming from national and religious backgrounds
categories, often associated with stereotypes, based on physical characteristics
culturally constructed category such as race and gender
clusters of traits culturally labeled as masculine, feminine, or androgynous
assessment of an audience's beliefs, values, and attitudes
asking the audience members directly for their opinion by questionnaires or interviews, for example
assessing audiences by observation or secondhand sources
asking for responses along a continuum; used to assess attitudes
listeners' impressions of your character, intentions, and abilities that make you more or less believable
prior or extrinsic credibility
credibility that speakers bring to the speech because of their experience and reputation
demonstrated or intrinsic credibility
obvious knowledge the speaker shows during the speech
final impression listeners have of a speaker
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