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Biol 2311 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
Terms in this set (54)
Know all the organelle functions.
What is the most likely role of a cell that contains an extensive smooth ER?
synthesizes large quantities of lipids
What cellular compartment will be more in cells that secrete large quantities of digestive enzymes?
They contain large quantities of Rough endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the functional role of mitochondrial compartments (the matrix, inner and outer membranes and the inter-membrane space)?
Mitochondrial Matrix: this is where pyruvate processing and the citric acid cycle take place
Inner membrane: connected to a series of cristae(sac-like) electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation takes place; can only transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water; contains the ATP synthase complex èInter-membrane space: electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation also takes place here
Outer membrane: defines the organelle's surface; more permeable than inner membrane space; can transport
What is the structural and functional connection between nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum?
Nucleus: (1) nuclear envelope (2) chromosomes (3) nucleolus
Function: administrative center for info storage & processing enclosed by unique double-layered membrane (nuclear envelope)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): inside-formed-network created from the nuclear envelope—the envelope extends & forms an extensive membrane-enclosed factory in the cytoplasm.
Function: synthesizes membrane proteins required for transport of solutes across plasma membrane 2 distinct regions of membrane-bounds sacs and tubules èrough: protein-manufacturing; ribosomes attached smooth:
Know the similarity and distinction between chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Both have double membrane and produce ATP.
Know the major differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryote: DNA in nucleioid, not membrane bound, plasmid common, limited types and number of organelles, cytoskeleton limited in extent, extensive internal membrane, usually small relative to eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes: DNA in nucleus, plasmids rare, membrane bound, large numbers of organelles, many types of organelles, extensive cytoskeleton, usually found throughout volume of cell, most are larger than prokaryotes.
Know the basic structural difference between plant cells and animal cells.
Centrioles in animal cells. Plant cells have cell wall and chloroplast.
What is the role of cell wall in prokaryotes and plant cells?
Protection and structural support.
How do newly synthesized proteins find their way into their target locations?
In the endomembrane
system, proteins bound
for lysosomes or rough
ER are given different
Proteins bound for
secretion have built-in
2. Proteins are sorted
in the Golgi when they
bind to different
3. Transport vesicles
bud off the trans face of
the Golgi and travel to
4. Proteins on vesicle
surface interact with
receptors at destination.
5. Vesicle delivers
What is the function of the nuclear pore complex?
The nuclear pores serve as the
pathways for the exchange of the
materials between the nucleus and the
How the membrane vesicles are moved/transported in the cell?
Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
What is the function of kinesin? How does its structure relate to its function?
Kinesin "walks" along a microtubule track. Kinesin is a superfamily of motor proteins that converts the energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work to drive movement along microtubules in a variety of cellular processes such as organelle transport and cell division
What is the function of signal sequence on polypeptides synthesized by ribosomes that are not attached to the endoplasmic reticulum?
What is the role of cytoskeletal proteins in changing cell shape or location or any type of cell movement?
structural support, movement of materials; in some species, movement of whole cell.
What is the function of keratin?
maintain cell shape by resisting tension (pull), anchor nucleus and some other organelles.
What is the function of extracellular matrix (ECM)?
the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
What is the difference between plant ECM and mammalian ECM?
What are the most common ECM proteins in animal cells/tissues?
Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. Collagens are present in the ECM as fibrillar proteins and give structural support to resident cells.
What are the proteins found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells?
Two main classes of extracellular macromolecules make up the matrix: (1) polysaccharide chains of the class called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are usually found covalently linked to protein in the form of proteoglycans, and (2) fibrous proteins, including collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, which have both structural and adhesive functions.
How do cells respond to hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic environments?
Isotonic (homeostasis) solution in which the concentration of both solvent (water) and solute are equal on both sides of the cell membrane. Hypertonic (shrink) solution is in which there is a higher concentration of water molecules (solvent) inside a cell than outside a cell. Hypotonic (burst) solution is in which there is a higher concentration of water molecules (solvent) outside a cell than inside a cell.
What is diffusion in terms of thermodynamics? Why diffusion occurs spontaneously?
The second law is the trend toward randomization (increasing entropy). When the concentrations of a substance on both sides of a membrane are equal, the distribution is more random than when they are unequal. Diffusion of a substance to a region where it is initially less concentrated increases entropy, making it an energetically favorable (spontaneous) process as described by the second law.
What is osmosis in terms of thermodynamics? Why osmosis occurs spontaneously?
Describe the transport process across cell membrane in terms of different types of molecules (large, small, charged, polar, etc)
Describe the function of integrins.
Membrane proteins that bind to extracellular crosslinking proteins
Include laminins, which in turn bind to other components of the extracellular matrix
The intracellular portion of integrins bind to proteins that are connected to the cytoskeleton, effectively linking the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, which is a critical linkage
Helps adjacent cells adhere to each other
What is the role of tight junctions between adjacent cells of the epithelium?
Tight junctions block the flow of fluids between epithelial cells.
What is a gap junction?
channel forming hexane proteins in the lateral side of the cell that connects the cytoplasm of two cells and allows for signalling between two cells.
Describe hormone action terms of sequence of events that take place during signal transduction?
Why are receptors for steroid hormones located inside the cell rather than on the membrane surface?
Steroid hormones are lipid soluble so they can read it bleed diffuse through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane
What is a kinase?
What is a second messenger?
What are the second messenger molecules?
What is the effect of cholesterol on the permeability of biological membranes?
Cholesterol affects membrane fluidity significantly, and at body temperature, it makes the membrane less fluid.
Where is the energy in a glucose molecule?
What is the form of energy extracted from glucose in the energy-yielding phase of glycolysis?
ATP and NADH
What is the major regulatory enzyme for glycolysis?
What are the electron carrier(s) in the Krebs cycle?
Is Krebs cycle regulated? If yes, how?
How does NAD carry electron?
2 electrons and a hydrogen ion (NADH)
How many oxygen molecules (O2) are required for completely oxidization of glucose to CO2?
Why are fermentation reactions important for cells?
They regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue to operate.
Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?
What is the chemiosmotic hypothesis?
-Proposed by Peter Mitchell
-Stated that a proton-motive force was responsible for driving the synthesis of ATP
-Protons are pumped across the inner mito membranes as electrons went through the ETC, resulting in a proton gradient with a lower pH in the intermembrane space
What is substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis?
Substrate-level phosphorylation is an enzymatically coupled reaction that produces ATP by the transfer of a phosphate group from a reactive intermediate generated during catabolism to ADP. In cells, substrate-level phosphorylation begins with the breakdown of an organic molecules. This process occurs in chemoorganotrophs, although they can use a wide variety of molecules to generate energy. One that is most commonly used is glucose, during the process of glycolysis.
Glycolysis is, simply, the catabolism of glucose to pyruvate. These pyruvate molecules proceed through the TCA cycle, which dismantles the carbon intermediates into 6 CO2 molecules, 6 water molecules, and 38 ATP molecules (per 1 glucose molecules)
What are the products of glycolysis?
2 molecules of Pyruvic acid, 2 molecules of NADH, and a net gain of 2 ATP molecules.
Why glycolysis is considered to be the first metabolic reaction?
Where does acetyl-CoA accumulate during respiration in eukaryotic cells?
How/where do electrons flow during photosynthesis?
Why are there different chlorophylls used in photosynthesis?
What event accompanies energy absorption by chlorophyll?
An electron is excited.
What is photorespiration?
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
How does carbon fixation differ between C3 and C4 plants?
Rubisco is the primary enzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation in C3 plants and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase can catalyze carbon fixation in C4 plants
Why it is not surprising that most of the enzymes of the Calvin cycle also function in other metabolic pathways?
There is a close relationship between carbohydrate synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism
How does the pH change in mitochondria when electrons flow along the electron transport chains?
The PH of the matrix increases.
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