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49 terms

Human Geography Chapt 2/3 Vocab

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Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Physiological Density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
National Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude birth rate
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Infant Mortality Rare (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth rate and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa.
Agricultural Revolution
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population
Epidemiologic Transition
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
Pandemic
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Census
A complete enumeration of the population
Brain Drain
Large- scale emigration by talented people
Chain Migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Circulation
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Emigration
Migration from a location
Floodplain
The are subject to flooding during a given number of years according to a historical trend
Forced Migration
Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe in search of higher-paying jobs
Immigration
Migration to a new location
Internal Migration
Permanent movement within a particular country
International Migration
Permanent movement from one country to another
Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another
Intervening Obstacle
Any environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intraregional Migration
Permanent movement within one region of a country
Migration
Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
Migration Transition
Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic change, etc
Mobility
All types of movement from one location to another
Net Migration
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration
Pull Factor
Factor that induces people to move to a new location
Push Factor
Factor that induces people to leave old residences
Quotas
Laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
Refugees
People are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership or political opinion
Undocumented Immigrants
People who enter a country without proper documents
Voluntary Migration
Permanent movement undertaken by choice