When the relationship between the states and national government is centered around federal budgetary (spending) issues, the relationship is known according to your textbook as
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The view held by Thomas Jefferson that government could only do what the Constitution explicitly said it could do, is known asstrict constructionArticle I provides for the election and powers of Congress; II for the President; and III for the appointment and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. This arrangement is a reflection of the constitutional principle of _____________.separation of powersThe listing, or enumeration, of Congressional powers is found in what provision of the Constitution?article 1, section 8When the Framers of the US Constitution spoke of a republic, they were referring to what we today would call a _______________ democracy.representativeWith the case of Marbury v. Madison, in 1803, the Supreme Court gained the power to declare federal laws unconstitutional, a power known as federal _______________.judicial reviewThe constitutional relationship, generally speaking, between the states and the federal government, as set forward in Article IV and in amendments 9, 10, and 14, etc., which operates today as a sharing of power between these governments, is called ____________.federalismThe constitutional method of interpretation known as instrumentalism is closely identified with what practice today?judicial activismThe brief introductory paragraph of the Constitution, listing the basic responsibilities of government, is known asThe PreambleThe promise of a Bill of Rights was necessary during the Ratification struggle because...without it, the constitution would never had gotten sufficient support of approvalIn what major Supreme Court decision did the court say that a state could not tax a national bank, and thus strengthen the concept of federal supremacy?McCulloch v. MarylandIn the case of Chisholm v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled what doctrine maintained by Georgia to be unwarranted, a ruling that was later reversed by the ratification of the 11th amendment?sovereign immunityWhen one believes one should adhere as closely as possible to what the Framers of the Constitution thought was appropriate for government to do, one holds the doctrine oforiginal intentThe doctrine of executive privilege was tested, and limited, in the 1974 case ofUS v. NixonAmong many criticisms the Antifederalists had about the new constitution, the most serious was its lack of aBill of RightsThe response of Thomas Jefferson toward the outbreak of Shays' Rebellion was thatrebellion was sometimes a good thingThe plan developed at the Philadelphia Convention to provide for equality of representation among the states, but to set up a stronger executive branch, was presented by William Paterson of ____________.New JerseyIndividuals with an unusual amount of influence on government action, whether they are officials or not, areelitesNullification meansthat the state governments reserve the right to declare federal laws unconstitutional and voidTrue or False: In America, political power would be concentrated according to the Constitution in a single supreme legislature.FalseThe compromise at Philadelphia which created a bicameral national legislature was known as theConnecticut (or Great) CompromiseThe notion that local, state and federal powers are so bound up together that they can't really be separated out is known as themarble-cake theoryTrue or False: The essays written by Madison, Hamilton and Jay which strongly supported ratification of the Constitution were called The Federalist PaperstrueThe term"Mixed government" refers commonly to one having elements ofmonarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy and democracyFormal adoption, or ratification, of the Constitution was to be accomplished in accordance with Article VII by requiring nine states to approve it throughstate conventions"Reading them their rights" has been a feature of placing suspected criminals under arrest since the Supreme Court decision in the case ofMiranda v. ArizonaThe Supreme Court has ruled that censorship of the press is basically illegal through the doctrine ofno prior restraintThe federal Exclusionary Rule was adopted as a result of the decision in _______________.Mapp v. OhioSchenck v. US, in declaring that a "clear and present danger" could justify limitations on free speech, upheld a law againstseditionCivil rights is vested in the 14th amendment guarantee ofequal protection of the lawsThe federal right of privacy was first enunciated in the Supreme Court case ofGriswold v. ConnecticutA major achievement of the Civil Rights movement was the passage of an act providing for government action to prevent electoral discrimination, either through registration or voting fraud. This act, passed in 1965, was thevoting rights actthe Due Process clause of the 5th amendment is generally held to be applicable towhether a law is being enforced properlyThe "Good Faith Exception" applies toadmission of evidence in court, laying aside the exclusionary rule in specific circumstances, police searches, arrest, and interrogationWomen were not to be denied the right to vote after the ratification of the19th amendmentThe three-part "test" created by Lemon v. Kurtzman to see whether a law does not unconstitutionally violate the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of religion requires thatthe law has primarily a secular purpose, the law neither prohibits nor advances religion; in other words, it is neutral in its effect, the law does not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion"Quid pro quo" and "hostile work environment" are possible elements in a civil lawsuit against an employer on the basis ofsexual harassmentThe Montgomery Bus Boycott erupted after the arrest of _____________ for refusing to give up her seat to a white man in 1955.Rosa Parks"Separate but equal" was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1954 in the case ofBrown v. Board of Education of TopekaThe case of Gideon v. Wainwright determined thatdefendants in state trials were entitled to counsel under the 6th amendment to the ConstitutionTrue or False: The constitutionality of "symbolic speech" has been upheld in limited instances where political opinion is the central feature of the case, as in burning the flag, rather than interference with a specific governmental procedure, such as burning one's draft card.trueThe Supreme Court declared that a woman's choice to bear a child or have a legal abortion was chiefly a private matter to be left to herself and her doctor in the 1973 decision inRoe v. WadeThe specific protections of the Bill of Rights must be applied by state courts as well, according to the federal doctrine ofincorporationThe 5th amendment protects citizens against being retried on the same charges after once being acquitted by a jury. This is protection against ___________.double jeopardyTrue or False: the two major forms of segregation are de jure and de facto segregationtrueAmerican's chief guarantees of civil liberties are found inthe Bill of RightsPolicies designed to create a "level playing field" between whites and minority groups in education, hiring, contracts, etc., are referred to asAffirmative ActionThe case of Bakke v. Regents was based on a claim that preferential admissions to public educational institutions amounted toreverse discriminationThe "separate-but-equal doctrine" was established by the Supreme Court in the case ofPlessy v. FergusonBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka in 1954 determined that "separate but equal" wasunconstitutional in public schoolsThe "wall of separation" between church and state is primarily based uponthe establishment clauseThe first major civil rights association to be formed in the United States was theNAACPPrinting false, misleading, and defamatory information about someone with the intent to harm them constitutes the civil offense calledlibelIf a person believes they are being detained in violation of his or her constitutional rights, it is an established feature of the constitution that he or she can apply for release through a writ of ____________, with very narrow exceptions.habeas corpusThe fourth amendment prohibits authorities from searching one's person and property generally unless they first obtain a warrant based on ____________.probable causeThe leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, who used civil disobedience and passive resistance as the major tool in pushing for civil rights reform, wasMartin Luther King, Jr.The Supreme Court in the case of Miller v. California set out a multi-part test forObscenityCivil Rights law are aimed at preventing and eradicating (getting rid of) instances ofunreasonable discriminatioinA justice who disapproves of the decision in a case and the legal reasoning behind that decision, will normally write a contrary opinion, which is referred to as adissentA judge who seeks to promote his or her own social agenda is practicingjudicial activismA permanent committee in the House or Senate which handles bills proposed in specific areas of legislation is called astanding committeeThe person chosen by each party to help congressional leaders stay informed about what party members are thinking, and organizing voting on legislative matters, is called a ______________.whipThe presidential role that involves effective leadership in making government policy isChief of stateTrue or False: The most senior member of the Supreme Court is always the justice who has been a sitting judge the longest period of time.falsePigeonholing refers tothe ability of a chairman to kill a bill in committee by refusing to discuss itWhen agencies complete their initial task and then seek to expand their mission, they are engaging inbureaucratic imperialismIf Congress votes by a 2/3 majority in each house to approve a bill previously disallowed by the President, it hasoverridden a presidential vetoThe main route a case takes to reach the Supreme Court is through the issuance of a writof certiorariWhen four members of the Supreme Court wish to grant a petition for a case, they will issue what document to the lower court as an order for the record of the case to be sent up?a writ of certiorariIn the House, bills are introduced byplacing them in the hopperIf Congress adjourns before the President has signed a bill (within a 10 day period after he has received it), the bill is consideredto have been pocket vetoedThe "heads of departments" within the federal government are commonly referred to as the President'sCabinetCivilian control of the military is established through the president's role asCommander in ChiefWhat constitutional amendment provides that the president can only be elected twice?22ndThe senior member of a congressional committee, on the minority side, is called theranking memberThe Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 is commonly called thePendleton ActBecause the Congress is composed of two houses, it is referred to asbicameralWhen the full House turns itself into a committee, it is known asthe Committee of the WholeAppointments made to federal jobs based on party loyalty to elected officials are made in accordance with thespoils systemWhich of the following powers of the President is shared with the Senate?appointment of ambassadors, judges and high officialsThose advisory councils that work out of nearby buildings and provide policy recommendations to the President are part of theExecutive Office of the PresidentThe only primary role of the president that is not considered a "constitutional" role is that ofparty leaderThe official who is often the "gatekeeper" for the President in the White House Office is theChief of staffWhen all members of the Supreme Court agree on a decision and the reasons for it, they may issue what sort of unsigned opinion?a per curiam opinionWhen a Standing Committee goes through a bill line by line to determine its final language, it is going through a process calledmarkupMembers of the House of Representatives are usually referred to ascongressmenMay amendments be proposed to a bill under an Open Rule?yesWhen the President of the United States believes a bill is inappropriate, he may refuse to sign it, and instead send it back to Congress with his objections. This is calleda vetoAppointments made on the basis of a personal request for an individual to hold a specialized position within the government are calledname-request positionsWhen bureaucracies create very technical procedures for accomplishing simple tasks it is said that they create...red tapeConcurrent resolutionsare passed by both houses of CongressCases involving citizens of different states, which may be heard by federal courts, are calleddiversity casesLegislative Process1. Introduction 2. Committee of Referral 3. Floor Action and Passage 4. Other House (Conference Committee) 5. Final Passage 6. Presidential Action 7. Congressional Override (if necessary)When two or more agencies are seeking to accomplish the same goal, this is known as the bureaucratic pathology ofbureaucratic duplicationThe President and his closest advisors work out of what part of the White House?the West WingConference committees, like joint committees, are composed ofmembers of both housesThe presiding officer in the House of Representatives is known by the title ofSpeakerIf the majority party in the Senate has at least sixty members, it can override filibusters by passingcloture motionsA filibuster can only be staged in which of the two houses of Congress?the SenateThe statement of principles and policy measures issued by a national party convention is known in America as theparty platformA closed primary existswhen only recognized party members may vote to choose party nomineesIn seeking to find public opinion on an issue, professional survey-takers take into account a statistical problem known as asampling errorA set of ideas such as conservatism or liberalism which citizens use as an intellectual framework for political behavior and public policy, is apolitical ideologyWhen a government official leaves office to take a high-paid job in the private sector, he or she is said to havegone through the revolving doorBy selecting specific political issues or persons to cover, the media fulfill what role?gatekeepA President under normal circumstances can only be elected..by winning a majority in the Electoral College vote in the general electionPrimary elections in reference to presidential candidates are commonly delegate-selection primaries based onpresidential prederenceIn the American political sytema "two-party system" naturally evolvedAccording to your text, in the United States, a political party seeks to elect candidates by providing them with a "brand name," or, in other words, ...a labelPress criticism of government officials, leading to government response, is fulfillment of the role ofwatchdogSomeone who is running for re-election to an office has the advantage ofincumbencyWhich of the following political parties in the United States represents a type of "third party" or "minor party" known as an ideological party?libertarian partya positive campaignaddresses a candidate's good qualities and goals, and does not slander other candidatesPresidential and vice-presidential nominees are formally chosen...by national conventionsA political party differs from an interest group primarily in thata party seeks to get its members elected to public office, whereas an interest group doesn'tA small gathering of voters interviewed by a political analyst to discern the reasons behind public opinion results is known as aa focus groupThe agency responsible for regulating the broadcast media in the United States is theFCCA type of organization created chiefly to raise money for political activities consistent with their beliefs, such as funding political campaigns, is known asa PACThe chief significance of a third party in the United States is tointroduce new issues and constituencies into the political processWhen information can be presented by a reporter only indirectly, as if it were that reporter's opinion, it is said to beon deep backgroundWhen a reporter is forbidden to print or broadcast a source's indentity or information gleaned from that source, the information is said to beoff the recordElection day in reference to federal offices in the United States (especially for the Presidency) is alwaysthe first Tuesday after the first Monday in NovemberA professional political analyst who develops and conducts political surveys involving large random samples is commonly called apollsterEighty percent of men support a policy, for instance, while eighty percent of women oppose the same policy. This difference is called the ....gender gapWhich of the following might be an example of a single-issue party?the Taxpayers PartyThe most local level of a national political party, above the voting member, isthe precinct caucusA "free love" primary is also known asa blanket primaryA presidential campaign normally begins withan announcement of candidacyWhich of the following is not a major type of incentive which "membership interest groups" employ to attract citizens?electiveA political machinewields political power chiefly through patronageA political survey seeking to find public opinion on a national question from a large random sample of the population is often referred to as apollNational committees and national conventions are elements of party structure composed of representatives from each state and territory known as...delegatesThe linkage between power and authority in a government, most often provided by a constitution, is calledsovereigntyFrance and Great Britain are examples of what type of national governmental system?confederalThe "Good Faith Exception" applies toadmission of evidence in court