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a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft

Committees of Correspondence

Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.

Common-law Courts

Courts that practiced common-law.

External Taxes

Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.

Internal Taxes

Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.

Feudal revival

(1730-1750) British landowners started to look to American holdings for money, crackdown for more money, most lucrative is Pennsylvania, quitrants were feudal taxes, direct w/out representation.


German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.


a person hired to fight for another country than their own

nonimportation agreements

Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.


A coin or coins of gold, silver, copper, or other metal.

vice-admiralty courts

English system which dispensed quick justice without juries.

virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

John Adams

America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

John Dickinson

delegate of Pennsylvania, who led a group that favored quick reconciliation with Great Britain as opposed to independence.

John Hancock

Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

John Wilkes

London member of Parliament who denounced George III's policies. Fled to France after publishing a piece offending the government. Came back to England in 1768 and ran for parliament but was arrested. Loved by the colonists

Margaret K. Gage

Wife of Thomas Gage, was an informant to New Jersey who passed a message on to Paul Revere.

Marquess of Rockingham

or Charles Watson-Wentworth, took over the treasury and soon the government of Grenville, and favored amending the Stamp Act but soon later wanted repeal.

Phillis Wheatley

American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)

Sarah Osborn

English immigrant who opened a school in Newport, Rhode Island, that admitted women and blacks and was a place for worship for all kinds

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Currency Act of 1764

Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

East India Company

an English company formed in 1600 to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia

Intolerable Acts

A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British

Massachusetts Government Act of 1774

Act in which Massachusetts became a Royal Colony and appointed General Gage the new governor


companies of civilian soldiers who boasted that they were ready to fight on a minute's notice

Olive Branch Petition

Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion

Paxton Boys

A mob of Pennsylvania Scots-Irish Immigrants who led a revolt to protest colonial policies towards Native Americans

Port Act

this closed Boston Harbor, prohibiting trade in or out until the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party was paid for

Proclamation Act of 1763

Act passed by England prohibiting colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains


English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Tea Act of 1773

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

Carpenters' Hall



Only colony not represented at the First Continental Congress

Hudson River Valley

River valley where vast estates created an aristocratic landholding elite in New Netherland and New York.

Newport, Rhode Island

1760's about 1/6 of Newport's african population were attending school (sarah osborn)

New York

city was captured by the british in 1776 and was used as a port throughout the war

South Carolina

settled by wealthier farmers; practiced slavery; set up rice and tobacco farms

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