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PSYC 451 - Psychology of Abnormal Behavior - Chapter 7
Terms in this set (17)
Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature
Mood disorder characteristics
Prolonged sadness or unexplained crying spells
Significant changes in appetite and sleep patterns
Irritability, anger, worry, agitation, anxiety
Loss of energy, persistent lethargy
Feelings of guilt, worthlessness
Inability to concentrate, indecisiveness
Inability to take pleasure in former interests, social withdrawal
Unexplained aches and pains
Recurring thoughts of death or suicide
Distinct period of abnormality and persitancy elevated, expansive, or irritable
Persistent depressive disorder
If you have persistent depressive disorder, you may find it hard to be upbeat even on happy occasions — you may be described as having a gloomy personality, constantly complaining or incapable of having fun. Though persistent depressive disorder is not as severe as major depression, your current depressed mood may be mild, moderate or severe.
Atypical features of mood disorders
Melancholic depression, where mood improvements from positive situations do not typically manifest in affected individuals1. The name is a misnomer, though. It is not uncommon or unusual; in fact, atypical depression is over two times more common in women than men and is more chronic with an average earlier onset than melancholic depression
Seasonal Affect Disorder (SAD)
A mood disorder caused by the body's reaction to low levels of sunlight in the winter months
The grieving person has a prolonged or significantly difficult time moving forward after a loss.
Suicide associated with bi-polar disease
It is estimated that nearly thirty percent of those diagnosed with bipolar disorder will attempt suicide at least once in their lives. The suicide rate for people with bipolar disorder is twenty times that of the general population.
Prevalence and scope of mood disorders
Prevalence rates for probable single lifetime episode of major depression (6.4%), probable recurrent major depression (moderate) (12.2%), probable recurrent major depression (severe) (7.2%) and probable bipolar disorder (1.3%) were comparable to those found in other population studies. The proposed diagnostic criteria have promising validity, with a gradient in evidence from no mood disorder through major depression and probable bipolar disorder in terms of gender distribution, socioeconomic status, self-reported health rating, current depressive
American Poets - Mental Health/Suicide
While still in college, Sylvia Plath plummeted into depression and was hospitalized and treated with shock therapy. The poet made multiple suicide attempts before eventually succeeding in 1963.
Ezra Pound was placed in a hospital for the criminally insane following his 1945 arrest for treason. During his 13-year stint at the hospital, he was formally diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder.
For Leo Tolstoy, rumination — a cornerstone of major depressive disorder — accounted for his evolving ideas on philosophy, life and art. Correlation studies show that both those in the creative arts and those with depressive disorder spend an inordinate amount of time contemplating their own distress. At one extreme point, Tolstoy even considered himself a moral failure because he lacked the courage to commit suicide
Virginia Woolf had her first bout with depression at the age of 15, battling it throughout her life — even being hospitalized in 1904 to treat the illness. Her creativity was frequently compromised by intermittent mood swings punctuated by sleeplessness, migraines and auditory and visual hallucinations.
Ernest Hemingway - Depression, borderline and narcissistic personality traits, bipolar disorder and, later, psychosis coalesced to create Hemingway's personal hell. Rather than turning to physicians or therapists for help, Hemingway used alcohol, engaged in risk-taking sportsmanship activities and wrote to cope. The author's mental and physical health deteriorated so rapidly during the last years of his life — primarily due to alcoholism
Creativity associated to bi-polar and depression
There is some evidence that many well-known creative people suffer or have suffered from bipolar disorder. But this link may be caused by an unknown third factor, such as temperament.
Conducted experiments with dogs that led to the concept of "learned helplessness"
psychologist; leader on positive psychology
Women's depression rates
The finding of similar female:male prevalence ratios in developed countries and globally suggests that the differential risk may primarily stem from biological sex differences and depend less on race, culture, diet, education and numerous other potentially confounding social and economic factors
Increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin, two neurotransmitters, and block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter. Scientists believe that by restoring the balance in these neurotransmitters in the brain that tricyclic antidepressants alleviate depression.
Mood stabilizer, in psychopharmacology, this is used to control bipolar symptoms
About 75% of people who take lithium for bipolar disorder have some side effects, although they may be minor.
Hand tremor (If tremors are particularly bothersome, an additional medication can help.)
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Is a medical treatment most commonly used in patients with severe major depression or bipolar disorder that has not responded to other treatments.
ECT involves a brief electrical stimulation of the brain while the patient is under anesthesia
A copycat suicide is defined as an emulation of another suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from local knowledge or due to accounts or depictions of the original suicide on television and in other media
People who are young or old - but not middle-aged - seem to be most susceptible to this effect.
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