Unit 5: Imperialism and World War I
Terms in this set (50)
the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas.
a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 - April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "The Great American Novel". He had believed in American Imperialism, but changed his beliefs expressing a "hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes."
Alfred Thayer Mahan
He was a United States Navy flag officer, geostrategist, and historian, who has been called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His concept of "sea power" was based on the idea that countries with greater naval power will have greater worldwide impact; it was most famously presented in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783 (1890).
the feelings and beliefs of people who think that their country is always right and who are in favor of aggressive acts against other countries.
Sanford B. Dole
(1844-1926) U.S. politician and jurist in Hawaii: president of Republic of Hawaii 1894-98; first territorial governor 1900-03.
To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city.
A ship canal, about 51 miles long, crossing the Isthmus of Panama in the Canal Zone and connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.
25th President of the United States; was assassinated by an anarchist (1843-1901).
26th President of the United States; hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; "Theodore Roosevelt said `Speak softly but carry a big stick'" (1858-1919).
launched in 1889 as an armored cruiser, was a second-class pre-dreadnought battleship whose sinking by an explosion, either internal or by a mine, on 15 February 1898 at 9:40 pm killing 266, precipitated the Spanish-American War.
According to the clause (enacted on April 20, 1898), the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people."
Platt Amendment of 1901
It allowed unilateral U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and mandated negotiation for military bases on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base (it was abrogated by the 1934 Treaty of Relations).
the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action.
Commodore George Dewey
an admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
an agreement made in 1898 that resulted in Spain surrendering control of Cuba and ceding Puerto Rico, parts of the West Indies, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The treaty was signed on December 10, 1898, and ended the Spanish-American War.
The conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to secure independence from the United States (fought between 1899 and 1902) following the latter's acquisition of the Philippines from Spain following the Spanish-American War.
Open Door Policy
a concept in foreign affairs (attributed to Sec. of State John Hay in 1899), initially used to refer to the United States policy in late 19th century and early 20th century that would grant multiple international powers with equal access to China, with none of them in total control of that country.
The Roosevelt Corollary
a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904 after Venezuela Crisis of 1902-03. The addendum states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European countries and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
William H. Taft
the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930).
(1856-1924) the 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. Developed the Fourteen Points in an attempt to stop European conflicts in the future. League of Nations was his idea even though the US never joined.
Russo-Japanese War of 1905
(8 February 1904 - 5 September 1905) It was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea. American President Theodore Roosevelt offered to mediate, and earned a Nobel Peace Prize for his effort.
World War I
It was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants were killed: a scale of death impacted by industrial advancements, geographic stalemate and reliance on human wave attacks.
A national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.
In international relations, where a polity such as a state favors or supports none of the parties involved in a disagreement, conflict or war.
War Industries Board
It was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials.
The Committee on Public Information
the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. It primarily used the propaganda techniques of progressive Edward Bernays.
a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused the Central Powers (including Germany and Austria-Hungary) and the Allies of World War I (countries allied with Serbia or Serbia's allies) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.
Shenck v. U.S
It was a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to express freedom of speech against the draft during World War I.
The Sedition Act of 1918
enacted May 16, 1918, it was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.
Eugene V. Debs
(November 5, 1855 - October 20, 1926) He was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
British ocean liner, she was launched by the Cunard Line in 1907, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. In 1915 she was torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat, with the loss of 1198 lives.
a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico to join the Central Powers, in the event of the United States entering World War I on the side of the Entente Powers.
unrestricted submarine warfare
a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning. The U-boat campaign of World War I, waged intermittently by Germany between 1915 and 1918 against Britain and her allies.
Selective Service Act of 1917
It was enacted on May 18, 1917, authorizing the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through conscription.
General John J. Pershing
(September 13, 1860 - July 15, 1948) He was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.
American Expeditionary Forces
the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the AEF fought in France alongside French and British allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces.
Spanish Flu of 1918
(January 1918 - December 1920) It was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic. It infected 500 million people across the world and killed 50 to 100 million of them—3 to 5 percent of the world's population at the time.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
a 1918 statement by United States President Woodrow Wilson that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe.
Battle of the Argonne Forest
It was part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front. It was fought from September 26, 1918, until the Armistice (November 11).
(December 13, 1887 - September 2, 1964), known also by his nickname, Sergeant York, he was one of the most decorated American soldiers in World War I. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919.
the undoing of colonialism, the unequal relation of polities whereby one people or nation establishes and maintains dependent Territory over another.
a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League.
League of Nations
It was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace.
Article X (League of Nations)
Article X of the Covenant of the League of Nations is the section calling for assistance to be given to a member that experiences external aggression.
Henry Cabot Lodge
(May 12, 1850 - November 9, 1924) he was an American Republican Senator. He demanded Congressional control of declarations of war; Wilson refused and the United States Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles nor joined the League of Nations.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism or ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care and economic development.
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