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Chapter 7 Biology Test Neblett

Chapter 7 Biology Test Neblett
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Who discovered the cell?
Robert Hooke
What is the cell theory?
1. All living things are made of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. New cell are produced from existing cells
Are all cells the same size?
No
What do all cells have?
A cell membrane, and have DNA at some point in their life
Where is the DNA stored?
Nucleus
What is the Nucleus?
Large membrane -enclosed structure containing the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA
Is DNA always stored in the Nucleus?
No
What type of cell does NOT have a nucleus?
Prokaryotes
What type of cell DOES have a nucleus?
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes do not contain what kind of cells?
Membrane Bound Cells
What is an example of Prokaryotes?
Bacteria
What is an example of Eukaryotes?
Anything BUT Bacteria
What is an organelle?
Highly specialized "little organs" within the cell
What are the two main parts of a Eukaryotic Cell?
Nucleus and Cytoplasm
What is the two main parts of the Cytoplasm?
Cytosol and Organelles
What does DNA do?
contains the instructions for building Protein
What is the Nuclear Envelope?
A protective layer composed of Nuclear Pores
What is the purpose of Nuclear Pores?
Allows molecules to come into and out of the nucleus.
What is Chromatin?
Is DNA bound to proteins
Where is Chromatin Located?
Nucleus
What is the Nucleolus?
The dense region where ribosomes are assembled
What is a Ribosome?
A small particle of RNA and protein.
What does a Ribosome do?
produces protein based on a code given from the DNA
Where are Ribosomes located?
Attached to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or free floating in the cytoplasm.
What are the two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum?
Rough and Smooth
What does the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum do?
Modifies and Prepared to be exported out of the cell
Why is the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum called rough?
Because it is lined with Ribosomes
What does the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum do?
Makes Membrane Lipids and Detoxifies the cell
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
packages, modifies, and sorts proteins for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
What is the path of Ribosomes?
1. Made in the DNA
2. Inserted in the Rough ER for modification
3. Moved to the Golgi Apparatus to be prepared for storage or movement
What does the Lysosome do?
Removes the junk in the cell.
What is a Vacuole?
Saclike structures that are used for storage of water, salt, protein and carbs
What are the two specialized types of a Vacuole?
Central and Contractile
What does the Contractile Vacuole do?
Pumps out water to maintain Homeostasis
What does the Central Vacuole do?
Helps give the cell structure
What does the Mitochondria do?
Converts the chemical energy of food into compounds that the cell can use.
What is the structure of Mitochondria?
2 membranes, an outer and inner
What does Mitochondria have of their own?
DNA
What is a Chloroplast?
Organelles that capture the sun's energy and convert it to sugars
What is the structure of Chloroplast?
2 membranes
What does Chloroplast have as well?
its own DNA
What is the Cytoskeleton?
Network of filament that help the cell maintain its shape and aid the cell in movement
What are the two types of filaments?
microtubules and microfilaments
What is a microtubule?
hollow structures made up of proteins called Tublins and form Centrioles
What does a Centriole do?
Helps organize cell division in only animal cells
What is a microfilament?
threadlike structures made of protein and Produce a flexible framework for the cell
What is the Cell Membrane do?
Provides protection and support for the cell, and Controls what comes into and leaves the cell
What is the Structure of the Cell Membrane?
Lipid Bilayer and is semipermeable
What is embedded in the Cell Membrane?
Protein Molecules
What is the Function of the Protein Molecules?
Some serve as pumps or channels to move
things/in out of the cell and Some have carbs attached to them, that acid in Communication between neighboring cells
What is the function of the Cell Wall?
Provides strong support and protection for the cell
What is the structure of the Cell Wall?
Made mainly of carbohydrates and proteins
What is the main component of the cell wall?
Carbohydrate Cellulose
What is Concentration?
Mass/Volume
Are particles moving or still?
They are moving, which causes them to spread out which leads to diffusion.
What is Diffusion?
Movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
What is Equilibrium?
State where there is an Equal concentration throughout
What is Osmosis?
the diffusion of water
What can pass through the Cell Membrane?
Small uncharged particles
What does it mean when it says the cell wall is semi-permeable?
some molecules can freely move across it and some cannot
What is a Hypertonic Solution?
Above Strength
What is a Hypotonic Solution?
below strength
What is an Isotonic Solution?
same strength
What are the 3 types of Passive transport?
1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis
3. Facilitated Diffusion
What is Facilitated Diffusion?
diffusion that requires the help of a protein channel
What is Active Transport?
Movement of materials across a cell membrane that DOES require energy from the cell.
What are 2 types of Active Transport?
1. Endocytosis
2. Exocytosis
What is Endocytosis?
the process of taking material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
What is Extocytosis?
the process by which material is released from the cell
What is Phagocytosis?
The process of bringing in solids into the cell
What is Pincytosis?
The process of bringing in liquids into the cell
What is Cell Specialization
The process of change within cells so that they have a specific function in an organism
How do all cells start and go through?
They all start the same and go through Cell Specialization.