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Terms in this set (12)
DNA Replication - 4 Rules
- 1. Occurs in the 5' to 3' direction
- 2. Semi-conservative
- 3. Requires RNA Primer
- 4. Requires template strand
- Ends of linear chromosomes made up of short sequence repeats
- Length is maintained by telomerase during replication.
- Flow of genetic info in
- DNA - RNA - Protein
- Mobile genetic elements capable of self-excision and reinsertion.
- IS element = transposase + inverted repeat sequence.
- Complex transposon involves additional genes.
- Can lead to mutations if inserted in protein-coding regions.
- Prokaryotes have single, circular chromosome.
- Prokaryotes can have plasmids (extrachromosomal genetic info).
- Eukaryotes have multiple linear chormosomes.
- 3 nucleotides = 1 codon = 1 amino acid
- Start Codon = AUG (methionine)
- Stop Codon = UAA, UAG, UGA ( no amino acids).
- Monomer = hydrocarbon
- Fatty acid: saturated = all single bonded carbons; unsaturated = at least one pair of double bonded carbons.
- Triglycerides store energy
- Phospholipids form membranes
- Cholesterol is precursor to steroids
- Monomer = Monosaccharides (CnH2n0n)
- Common hexoses = glucose, fructose, galactose
- Common pentoses = ribose, deoxyribose
- Common disaccharides = maltose, sucrose, lactose
- Common polysaccharides = glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin
- Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
- 1* structure is amino acid sequence
- 2* structure is alpha-helix or beta-sheet
- 3* structure is side-chain interactions
- 4* structure is interactions between dif. peptides
- Monomers of nucleic acids
- 3 components: sugar + aromatic base + phosphates
- RNA built with ribose, DNA built with 2' deoxyribose
- 2 classes of bases = purines (A & G) and pyrimidines (C, U and T)
- DNA & RNA
- DNA is double-stranded; forms double helix; bases are A, T, G, C
- RNA is single stranded; bases are A, U, G, C
- Nucleic acids are synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
- Occurs in cytosol
- Produces NADPH, ribose-5-P
- First phase is oxidative: converts glucose-6-P to ribulose-5-P, major enzyme is glu-6-P dehydrogenase
- Second Phase is non-oxidative: converts ribulose-5-P to ribose-5-P and/or glycolytic intermediates (fry-6-P, GAP) and other sugars.
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