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38 terms

Biology 101 Test 4 Louisiana Tech Giorno Chapter 15

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About ___ percent of an individual's genes are the same as in the general population.
99
A nucleotide difference carried by at least 1 percent of the population is called a
single-nucleotide polymorphism
Enzymes used to cut DNA molecules in recombinant DNA research are
restriction enzymes
The "natural" use of restriction enzymes by bacteria is to
destroy viral DNA
Restriction enzymes
often produce staggered cuts in DNA that are useful in splicing genes.
are like most enzymes in being very specific in their action.
are natural defense mechanisms evolved in bacteria to guard against or counteract bacteriophages.
are used along with ligase and plasmids to produce a DNA library.
Which of the following enzymes join the paired sticky ends of DNA fragments?
DNA ligase
Small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria are called
Plasmids
Plasmids
are self-reproducing circular molecules of DNA.
are sites for inserting genes for amplification.
may be transferred between different species of bacteria.
may confer the ability to donate genetic material when bacteria conjugate.
Because it has no infrons, researchers prefer to use___ when working with human genes.
cDNA
RNA can manufacture DNA via the action of
reverse transcriptase
cDNA is copied from
mRNA
Probes for cloned genes use
complementary nucleotide sequences labeled with radioactive isotopes.
A collection of cells containing DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes and incorporated into plasmids is called
a DNA library
Multiple copies of DNA can be produced by
cloning a DNA library.
PCR.
the use of reverse transcriptase.
the action of DNA polymerse.
For the polymerase chain reaction to occur,
isolated DNA molecules must be primed, and the DNA must be separated into single strands.
The polymerase used in PCR was isolated from
thermus aquaticus
The laboratory technique used to separate the DNA fragments produced by automated DNA sequencing is
gel electrophoresis
What is the purpose of the modified bases in DNA sequencing
DNA replication terminates when a modified base is added.
they are easily recognized by the computer.
they are added to the DNA chain just like the normal bases.
Who did NIH hire in 1988 to head the human genome project?
James Watson
DNA Fingerprinting is based on the slight differences that occur in___ in the human genome
short tandem repeats
Disabling a gene to determine its action is called a___ experiment
knockout
E. coli that contains the genes for human insulin is
genetically engineered.
transgenic.
a GMO.
Bacteria has been engineered to
produce chrymotrypsin.
make human insulin.
produce enzymes that increase shelf life of bread.
produce enzymes that improve the taste and clarity of beer.
Golden rice could alleviate blindness caused by deficiency in which vitamin?
Vitamin A
Genetically modified organs from what organism may be used to replace defective human organs?
pig
Most GMO products have been produced by
private companies
Gene therapy
offers the possibility of replacing defective alleles with normal ones
What human problem has been cured using gene therapy?
SCID-X1
In the SCID-X1 gene therapy trials, what problem later surfaced after three of the patients?
leukemia
These are genetically identical organisms.
Clones
When one uses the techniques of genetic engineering to move a novel or foreign piece of DNA into the DNA of an organism, these new DNA regions are known by this name.
recombinants
When pieces of DNA are moved by a genetic engineer from one organism to another, they are first incorporated into these entities.
plasmids
The sole function of theses is to cut apart foreign DNA molecules
restriction enzymes
These are specific sequences of DNA that can form sticky ends when cut
restriction sites
This is from a viral source and catalyzes reactions to construct DNA strands from mRNA
reverse transcriptase
Any DNA copied from mRNA transcripts is known by this name
cDNA
This is the name of a nuclease whose only function is to cut apart foreign DNA entering a cell
a restriction enzyme
Collections of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes and incorporated into cloning vectors are known by this name
a DNA library