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About ___ percent of an individual's genes are the same as in the general population.


A nucleotide difference carried by at least 1 percent of the population is called a

single-nucleotide polymorphism

Enzymes used to cut DNA molecules in recombinant DNA research are

restriction enzymes

The "natural" use of restriction enzymes by bacteria is to

destroy viral DNA

Restriction enzymes

often produce staggered cuts in DNA that are useful in splicing genes.
are like most enzymes in being very specific in their action.
are natural defense mechanisms evolved in bacteria to guard against or counteract bacteriophages.
are used along with ligase and plasmids to produce a DNA library.

Which of the following enzymes join the paired sticky ends of DNA fragments?

DNA ligase

Small circular molecules of DNA in bacteria are called



are self-reproducing circular molecules of DNA.
are sites for inserting genes for amplification.
may be transferred between different species of bacteria.
may confer the ability to donate genetic material when bacteria conjugate.

Because it has no infrons, researchers prefer to use___ when working with human genes.


RNA can manufacture DNA via the action of

reverse transcriptase

cDNA is copied from


Probes for cloned genes use

complementary nucleotide sequences labeled with radioactive isotopes.

A collection of cells containing DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes and incorporated into plasmids is called

a DNA library

Multiple copies of DNA can be produced by

cloning a DNA library.
the use of reverse transcriptase.
the action of DNA polymerse.

For the polymerase chain reaction to occur,

isolated DNA molecules must be primed, and the DNA must be separated into single strands.

The polymerase used in PCR was isolated from

thermus aquaticus

The laboratory technique used to separate the DNA fragments produced by automated DNA sequencing is

gel electrophoresis

What is the purpose of the modified bases in DNA sequencing

DNA replication terminates when a modified base is added.
they are easily recognized by the computer.
they are added to the DNA chain just like the normal bases.

Who did NIH hire in 1988 to head the human genome project?

James Watson

DNA Fingerprinting is based on the slight differences that occur in___ in the human genome

short tandem repeats

Disabling a gene to determine its action is called a___ experiment


E. coli that contains the genes for human insulin is

genetically engineered.
a GMO.

Bacteria has been engineered to

produce chrymotrypsin.
make human insulin.
produce enzymes that increase shelf life of bread.
produce enzymes that improve the taste and clarity of beer.

Golden rice could alleviate blindness caused by deficiency in which vitamin?

Vitamin A

Genetically modified organs from what organism may be used to replace defective human organs?


Most GMO products have been produced by

private companies

Gene therapy

offers the possibility of replacing defective alleles with normal ones

What human problem has been cured using gene therapy?


In the SCID-X1 gene therapy trials, what problem later surfaced after three of the patients?


These are genetically identical organisms.


When one uses the techniques of genetic engineering to move a novel or foreign piece of DNA into the DNA of an organism, these new DNA regions are known by this name.


When pieces of DNA are moved by a genetic engineer from one organism to another, they are first incorporated into these entities.


The sole function of theses is to cut apart foreign DNA molecules

restriction enzymes

These are specific sequences of DNA that can form sticky ends when cut

restriction sites

This is from a viral source and catalyzes reactions to construct DNA strands from mRNA

reverse transcriptase

Any DNA copied from mRNA transcripts is known by this name


This is the name of a nuclease whose only function is to cut apart foreign DNA entering a cell

a restriction enzyme

Collections of DNA fragments produced by restriction enzymes and incorporated into cloning vectors are known by this name

a DNA library

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