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Populism i.e. Progressivism i.e. muckrakers i.e. Jacob Riis i.e. How the Other Half Lives i.e. Teddy Roosevelt i.e. New Nationalism

Theodore Roosevelt

First Progressive president. VP in 1900, Political Independence, "A square deal for all." Uses bully pulpit.

Leon Czolgosz

Killed McKinley for the "good of the people."

Charles Guiteau

Killed Garfield because earlier he'd petitioned to be French ambassador, supported stalwarts, God told him to kill pres.

Pendleton Act

Civil Service Reform- have to apply for a gov't job


Born out of Grange movement-centered in Iowa-Oliver Kelly

James Weaver

ran in 1892 for Populists. Omaha (NJ) platform, fails because poor whites/blacks don't unite

Omaha platform

initiative, referendum, recall, direct election of Senate, more gov't involvement, silver, 8 hour workday

Panic of 1893

farmers hit hard, Jacob Coxey's army marches on D.C.

Election of 1896

Dem. Bryan v. Rep. McKinley- Hanna runs for McK, McK wins because there's an economic revival. Victory of businessmen over farmers.

Political goals of Progressivism

Improving democracy, getting rid of corruption
Tom Johnson, Sam "Golden Rule" Jones, Emil Seidel the socialist, Hiram Johnson, Charles Evans Hughes of NY.

Robert "Battlin' Bob" Lafolette

Gov'r of Wisconsin, set example

Economic goals of Progressivism

limit power of big business, restore opportunity

Social goals of Progressivism

women's suffrage, working children, immigrants, religious element-social gospel. Women most active.


McClures magazine published, Ida Tarbell i.e. History of Standard Oil i.e. Rockefeller. Jacob Riis i.e. How the Other Half Lives. Upton Sinclair i.e. The Jungle. Edward Bellamy i.e. Looking Backward. Lincoln Steffens i.e. Shame of the Cities. Frank Norris i.e. The Octopus i.e. RRs.

Public Relations Dept

Response to muckrakers. Repudiate claims.

Political changes

1. secret ballot
2. direct primary
3. 17th Amendment
initiative, referendum, recall


belief of prohibition. Women's Christian Temperance Union. Francis Willard, Carrie A. Nation. A successful failure.

Suffrage Movement

1840-Seneca Falls. E. Cady Stanton. NAWSA led by Carrie Chapman Catt

Alice Paul and Lucy Burns

Wanted national push.

Margaret Sanger

birth control

Lochner v. NY

14th A to challenge. Lochner wins, bakers get to work as long as they want.

Muller v. Oregon

Louis Brandeis uses economic/socialogical arguments to win the case for Muller.

Hammer v. Dagenhart

5:4 overturning Keating Owen Child Labor Law. Cannot limit hours of children

workmen's compensation

by 1917, 80% states makes co.s liable for injuries on the job

Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch

city reform

Jane Addams, Robert Woods, Jacob Riis

social gospel

Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)

John Mitchell and United Mine Workers v. George Baer. Teddy calls them to White House, 10% raise and 9 hour workday.

Northern Securities Corporation Case

John Pierpont Morgan, Edward Henry Harriman, James J. Hill make a stock holding company. U.S. wins because power exists.

Elkins Act (1903)

illegal to accept rebates/kickbacks

Hepburn Act (1906)

power to ICC-gov't can inspect RR records/set rates

Meat Inspection Act/Pure Food and Drug Act

gov't can inspect. "FDA approved"

Municipal Socialism

take over utilities

Nat'l Forests

TR takes 150 million acres

Newlands Act (1902)

irrigation of the Southwest-->immigration from Mexico

John Muir

environmentalist. Started nat'l parks

William Henry Taft

more of a judge. wife Nellie was ambitious. went after trusts.

Mann-Elkins Act

gives more power to the Interstate Commerce Commission over telegraph/telephones

16th Amendment

graduated income tax

17th Amendment

direct election of Senators

Payne-Aldrich tariff

Taft signs it even though it's "payneful"! Hahaha

Old Guard v. Progressives

split between Taft and TR

Speaker Joe Cannon

too powerful. Now decisions approved by the whole House.

Richard Ballinger-Gifford Pinchot affair

sec of interior v. chief forester-->leads to TR running in the Election of 1892

Election of 1912

Progressive (Bull-Moose party)-TR-->New Nat'lism, expansion of gov't power, regulate oil, down tariffs, do what's good for public welfare
Rep-Taft-->Old Guard
Dem-Woodrow Wilson-->New Freedom, free enterprise, no privileges (triple wall of privilege-trusts, tariffs, high finance)
Eugene Debs-->Socialism

THOMAS Woodrow Wilson's presidency

failure at the time, success now. Academic. Made Bryan sec of state. Goes after tariffs. DUMB LOBBYISTS

Underwood Tariff (1913)

significant drop. graduated income tax...very low for some

Federal Reserve Act (1913)

bank for bankers

Federal Trade Commission (1914)

can investigate and prosecute "unfair" business practices

Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)

strengthened SAT Act. No monopolies. Made directors personally liable. Exempted unions from the SAT Act. Gompers is ecstatic.

Adamson Act (1916)

8 hour workday for RR workers

Federal Farm Loan Act (1916)

support farmers

Keating Owen Child Labor Act (1916)

14 years of age, hour restrictions until 16

Conditions for blacks

Political=disenfranchisement-literacy tests, poll taxes, white primaries, lynching, grandfather clause. Limited poor whites too
Economic=sharecroppers, tenant farming
Social=Jim Crow laws-segregation

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

segregation legal. Louisiana Separate Car Act. Plessy thrown off, "separate but equal." Only Brown v. Board of Edu ends segregation for good.

Booker T. Washington

"Cast down your bucket where you are" -Atlanta Exposition Speech. Wanted gradual, start at the bottom

W.E.B. Du Bois

"manly agitation." Black pride, Niagara Falls 1905, NAACP founded 1909

Niagara movement

2. no more discrimination in public accomodations
3. right of men to be with whomever they want
4. laws enforced on rich as well as poor-equal protection
5. education

Nat't Assoc for Advancement of Colored Peoples

founded by Du Bois and 8 white liberals. Paper The Crisis

Successes of Progressivism

women's movement, safer work environment, income tax, consumer protection, referendum, initiative, local success, trust busting, temperance, protect environment

Limitations of Progressivism

blacks left out, internal conflict, still a gap, labor reform, still need corporations, prohibition, Taft, women's lives not really changed.

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