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Terms in this set (36)
Relates mechanics to the human body
Bones _______ energy and pass energy. However, if two much energy the bone will break.
Situation in which all forces acting on a body are balanced and the body is in equilibrium moving at a constant velocity or at rest.
Bodies subject to unbalanced force, circumstances where an excess of force in one direction or a turning force cause an object to change speed or direction.
Entity that tends to produce, halt, or change the direction of motion on an object.
Forces that affect movement due to contact between bodies.
Forces which affect the movement without contact between bodies (gravity)
Any group of 2 or more forces acting in relation to an object or to one another
Concurrent Force System
Two or more forces acting on the same point
Coplanar Force System
Two or more forces acting in the same plane
Collinear Force System
Parallel forces that are coplanar and concurrent, acting along the same line
Parallel Force System
Two or more forces with lines of application that are parallel
General Force System
When two or more forces are acting on an object and the force system cannot be classified as one of the others
Resolution of Forces
Taking force and viewing it in a horizontal and vertical pieces to determine x and y plane forces
The measure of the tendency of a force to produce rotation, is equal to the force times the perpendicular distance from the line of application of the force to the axis of rotation (moment arm)
Measure of quantity of matter, if you have this, you also have inertia
Property of an object to resist the change of state of rest of motion of that state
Gravitational pull on the mass of an object (gravity helps)
Center of Mass
Balance point about which all the particles of the object are evenly distributed (does not have to be within body
Moment of Inertia
Property of an object to resist change in rotary motion
Force system in which there are two parallel forces equal in magnitude and opposite in direction which combine to produce a turning effect on the body, axis of motion is midway between the two forces and the pair of forces is called a couple
Muscle that have their origin close to the joint and insert far from the joint, tend to have a stabilizing component (tonic/stability)
Muscles that insert close to the join and have their origin far from the joint, tend to have large rotary component (phasic/motility)
A muscle or group which by its contraction is considered to be the principal muscle producing a joint motion or maintaining a posture
A muscle or muscle group that possesses the opposite anatomic action of the agonist
A muscle that contracts at the same time as the agonist
A direct proportionality between the length of a muscle and the tension across that muscle. The more a muscle is stretched, the more tense it will be.
An indirect proportionality between the force a muscle can exerts and the speed at which the muscle exerts the force. The faster a muscle contracts, the less powerful it is. (can be affected by muscle length)
This normally results when an active muscle is not at its optimal length for contraction, normally due to a muscle that crosses two joints.
This normally results when an active muscle is not at it's optimal length for contraction, normally due to an antagonist or the muscle is passively resisting the movement
A single neuron and all the muscles that it innervates
Adding more units to a motor unit in order to get more force
Firing one motor unit more frequently in order to get more force
Perpendicular distance between axis of rotation and point of application, changes with position
Distance between insertion point of muscle and axis of rotation, is a fixed length
1) Force x Moment arm 2) Rotary Component of Force x Lever Arm
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