259 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Diversity of Life

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what is taxonomy?
the science of classifying organisms
list the broadest to most specific taxonomic ranks:
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
list the six kingdoms:
1. Archaea
2. Eubacteria
3. Protista
4. Fungi
5. Plantae
6. Animalia
eubacteria and archaebacteria are _____ cells
prokaryotic
_____ do not have membrane-bound nuclei (or organelles for the most part)
prokaryotes
_____ have cell walls with peptidoglycan and esters
eubacteria
_____ have polysaccharide cell walls (not peptidoglycan like eubacteria) and ethers
archaea
_____ is a combination of carbohydrate and amino acids in bacterial cell walls
peptidoglycan
a _____ is a test to determine the amount of peptidoglycan
gram stain
_____ bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan, and they appear dark purple
gram positive
_____ bacteria have a with a thin peptidoglycan layer between two membranes, and they appear pink
gram negative
the _____ makes gram negative bacteria visible during staining
counterstain
the _____ is the gel located in the periplasmic space (predominantly in gram negative bacteria)
periplasm
_____ is found (predominantly) between membranes of gram negative bacteria
periplasmic space

(very small in gram positive bacteria)
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an _____ found in gram _____ bacteria only
endotoxin; negative
LPS _____ is found in the _____ of gram negative cells, and it is only released when the bacteria is destroyed
endotoxin; outer membrane
an _____ is a toxin that both gram positive and gram negative bacteria secrete
exotoxin
endotoxins are only secreted by gram _____ bacteria
negative
_____ are acidic polysaccharides that provide significant rigidity and structure only in gram _____ bacteria
teichoic acids; positive
a _____ covers both gram negative and gram positive bacterial cell walls
capsule
bacterial capsules are _____ because they decrease the capacity for bacteria to be phagocytosed by immune cells
virulence factors
in prokaryotes, the small ribosomal subunit is _____ and the large ribosomal subunit is _____ - these combine to form a _____ ribosome
30S; 50S; 70S
prokaryotic ribosomal subunits are made in the _____, and they are assembled into a 70S ribosome in the _____
nucleoid/cytosol; cytosol
eubacteria and archaea can contain extrachromosomal pieces of DNA called _____
plasmids
plasmids are segments of _____ DNA that may pass _____ between cells
extrachromosomal; horizontally
_____ have histone proteins and introns, but _____ lack both
archaea; bacteria
archaea and bacteria both have _____ and _____ (structural features)
pili; flagella
both archaea and bacteria undergo _____ to reproduce
binary fission (asexual reproduction)
binary fission is an _____ mechanism where cells simultaneously grow, replicate their genome, and divide into 2 genetically identical cells
asexual reproduction
protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia are _____ kingdoms
eukaryotic
eukaryotes have membrane bound _____ and _____
nuclei; organelles
some _____ have cell walls, whereas most _____ will have them
prokaryotes; non-mamalian eukaryotes

(mammals have an extracellular matrix with collagen fibrils instead of a cell wall)
prokaryotic cells are _____ (size) than eukaryotes
smaller
prokaryotes tend to have _____ chromosome(s) in their _____, while eukaryotes tend to have _____ chromosome(s) in their _____
a single, circular; nucleoid; multiple, linear; nucleus
plasmids are frequent in _____, but they only occur sometimes in _____
bacterial prokaryotes; eukaryotes

(plasmids occur sometimes in archaeal prokaryotes)
histone proteins are present in _____ and _____, but they are absent in _____
eukaryotes; archaeal prokaryotes; bacterial prokaryotes
DNA replication is _____ (speed) in prokaryotes, but it is _____ (speed) in eukaryotes
fast; slow
introns are present in _____ and _____, but they are absent in _____
eukaryotes; archaeal prokaryotes; bacterial prokaryotes
prokaryotes have _____ ribosomes, while eukaryotes have _____ ribosomes
70S (30S and 50S subunits); 80S (40S and 60S subunits)
prokaryotes are _____ (ploidy), while eukaryotes are _____ (ploidy)
haploid; diploid
(prokaryotes/eukaryotes) do not have telomeres, but (prokaryotes/eukaryotes) do
prokaryotes; eukaryotes
the electron transport chain (ETC) is located along the _____ of prokaryotes, and it is located along the _____ of eukaryotes
cell membrane; mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
transcription + translation occurs simultaneously for the same mRNA transcript in _____
prokaryotes
transcription + translation does not occur simultaneously for the same mRNA transcript in _____
eukaryotes

(transcription occurs first in the nucleus, then translation occurs when the mRNA moves to the cytoplasm)
prokaryotes have a (short/long) cell cycle, and they divide by _____
short; binary fission
eukaryotes have a (short/long) cell cycle, and they divide by _____
long; mitosis/meiosis

(mitosis for somatic cells and meiosis to make gametes)
_____ are usually unicellular organisms, which can be fungus like, animal like, or plant like
protists
fungus-like protists (slime mold) do not have a cell wall made of _____, and they can move via _____
chitin; flagella or cilia
_____ organisms feed on decaying matter
saprophytic
how do fungus-like protists intake their food?
phagocytosis (saprophytic)
how do fungus-like protists reproduce?
asexual reproduction and sporulation
_____ protists are photosynthetic primary producers
plant-like
dinoflagellates, diatoms, and euglenoids are unicellular, _____ protists that live in aquatic environments, reproduce asexually
plant-like
_____ is an algal bloom created by dinoflagellates, which leads to a build up of toxins and depletion of oxygen in the water
red tide
amoeba and paramecium are _____ protists (protozoa)
animal-like
amoeba and paramecium are protozoa (animal-like protists) that move via _____
cilia/flagella
_____ are protozoa (animal-like protists) that are heterotrophic and act as parasitic pathogens
amoeba and paramecium
fungi are heterotrophic _____, and they are (prokaryotic/eukaryotic)
saprophytes; eukaryotic
_____ are unicellular, eukaryotic, non-filamentous fungi
yeast
yeast are _____ (metabolism), and they reproduce asexually, by _____
facultatively anaerobic; budding
_____ are multicellular, eukaryotic, filamentous fungi
molds
molds form hyphae, and they are _____(metabolism)
aerobic
_____ are long branching network with nearby fungi
hyphae
a _____ is a whole group of hyphae
mycelium
_____ hyphae are separated into sections
septate
_____ hyphae are not separated into sections
coenocytic
fungi reproduce _____ when environmental conditions are good, and _____ when environmental conditions are bad
asexually; sexually
lichens are _____ containing fungi
symbiotic autotrophs
fungi can be paired with _____ or _____ in a lichen
algae; cyanobacteria
what are some of the most common features that animals share?
eukaryotic; diploid; multicellular; heterotrophic aerobes; usually motile; nervous and muscular systems
what are the 9 important phyla?
Porifera
Cnidaria
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelida
Mollusca
Arthropoda
Echinodermata
Chordata
_____ is a cavity fully lined by mesoderm
coelom
_____ have no cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm
acoelomates
the coelom is only partially surrounded by mesodermal tissue in _____
pseudocoelomates
which 3 of the 9 phyla are acoelomate (lack a coelom)?
platyhelminthes, cnidaria, porifera
what 1 of the 9 phyla are considered pseudocoelomate?
nematoda
a _____ provides rigidity through fluid pressure
hydrostatic skeleton
what are the 5 coelomate phyla?
annelids, mollusca, arthropoda, echinodermata, and chordata
amoebocytes can move by extending their cytoplasm (_____)
pseudopodia
_____ is a form of asexual reproduction, where an outgrowth from an old organism produces a new organism
budding
_____ have both male and female sexual structures, so they can produce both male and female gametes
hermaphrodites
_____ are organisms without true tissues
parazoa
_____ organisms are fixed in one place
sessile
_____ organisms have endoderm and ectoderm (no mesoderm)
diploblastic
_____ are organisms that have true tissues
eumetazoans
_____ are digestive systems with just 1 opening
gastrovascular cavities
_____ are motile cnidarians that reproduce sexually
medusa
_____ are cells that shoot poisonous barbs for protection and hunting
nematocysts
nerve nets are primitive central nervous systems found in organisms with _____ and _____ symmetry
cephalization; radial
_____ symmetry refers to symmetry around the central axis
radial
what are some examples of platyhelminths?
flatworms, trematoda, flukes, tapeworm, planaria
platyhelminths have _____ symmetry and cephalization (a head)
bilateral
how are tissues organized in platyhelminths?
triploblasts, eumetazoa
describe the circulatory system of platyhelminths:
none (diffusion)
describe the nervous system of platyhelminths:
two nerve cords with an anterior centralized ganglia (brain)
describe the respiratory system of platyhelminths:
none (diffusion)
describe the digestive system of platyhelminths:
gastrovascular cavity with 2 way digestion
describe the embryonic development of platyhelminths:
none
_____ symmetry is characterized by right and left halves creating a midline (sagittal plane)
bilateral
_____ refers to organisms with a head
cephalization
flame cells are involved with _____ and _____
osmoregulation; filtration
_____ is the process of moving water across a semipermeable membrane
osmoregulation
what are nerve cords?
dense nerve clusters that run the length of an invertebrates body
what are protonephridia?
bundles of flame cells, which function similarly to a kidney
_____ organisms have 3 germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm (from inner to outer)
triploblastic
nematoda have _____ symmetry
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of nematoda:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
_____ are pseudocoelomate, and their psuedocoelom acts as a hydrostatic skeleton
nematoda
describe the circulatory system of nematoda:
none (diffusion)
describe the nervous system of nematoda:
nerve cord and ring
describe the respiratory system of nematoda:
none (diffusion)
describe the digestive system of nematoda:
alimentary canal, one way
describe the excretory system of nematoda:
none (diffusion)
what is the embryonic development of nematoda?
none
_____ are the entire passage between an organism's mouth and anus
alimentary canals
what are nerve rings?
rings of nerve tissue surrounding the esophagus
rotifers are a similar phyla to _____
nematoda
rotifera have a _____ symmetry
bilateral
what is the rotifera tissue organization?
triploblasts, eumetazoa
rotifera are _____, similar to nematoda
pseudocoelomates
describe the rotifera circulatory system:
none (diffusion)
what does the rotifera nervous system look like?
cerebral ganglia (brain) with some nerves extending through the body
describe the rotifera respiratory system:
none (diffusion)
describe the rotifera digestive system:
alimentary canal with a mouth and anus
rotifera have an excretory system with _____ and _____
protonephridia; flame cells
_____ cilia help organisms to move substances around
motile
_____ cilia act as cellular antenna for receiving signals
non-motile
do flame cells have cilia?
yes, the aid in the filtering process
_____ is asexual reproduction where an unfertilized egg cell turns into an offspring
parthenogenesis
_____ parthenogenesis means that the egg only retains half of the mother's DNA as it regains diploidy
half clone
_____ parthenogenesis means that the egg that retains all of the mother's DNA as it regains diploidy
full clone
what are some examples of annelida?
earthworm, leech
annelida have _____ symmetry
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of annelida:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are annelida coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
coelomate
describe the annelida circulatory system:
closed circulatory system, with multiple pairs of aortic arches and distinct arteries and veins
describe the annelida nervous system:
ventral nerve cord, anterior ganglia (brain)
describe the annelida respiratory system:
none (diffusion)
describe the annelida digestive system:
alimentary canal with a mouth and anus
most annelida have _____ for their excretory system
metanephridia
are annelida protostomes or deuterostomes?
protostomes
the _____ is the primitive gut formed during gastrulation
archenteron
the _____ opens into the archenteron, and it has the potential of developing into the mouth or the anus during gastrulation
blastopore
blood is pumped through vessels by a heart in _____
closed circulatory systems
describe determinate cleavage:
the fate of the cell is set early on
metanephridia are involved in _____, and they contain tubes with cilia that move fluid into the _____
invertebrate osmoregulation; coelom
protostomes are a group of animals where the blastopore forms the _____
mouth
describe the embryonic cleavage of protostomes:
spiral and determinate
what are some examples of mollusca?
clam, snail, slug, squid, octopus, cephalopod, gastropod
mollusca have _____ symmetry
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of mollusca:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are mollusca coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
coelomate
describe the mollusca circulatory system:
mainly open, containing a hemocoel
describe the mollusca nervous system
ventral nerve cords and brain
what is a prominent feature of the mollusca respiratory system?
gills
_____ have a complete digestive system, with a mouth, anus, and radula
mollusca
what is a prominent feature of the mollusca excretory system?
nephridia
are mollusca protostomes or deuterostomes?
protostomes
_____ digestive systems have basic alimentary canals with accessory digestive structures
complete
the _____ secretes calcium carbonate, which is used to build mollusca shells
mantle
what are nephridia?
pairs of osmoregulatory 'kidneys' found in an invertebrate
what are 2 specific types of nephridia?
metanephridia and protonephridia
_____ are unique to mollusca, and they look like tongues covered in tiny teeth
radula
what are visceral structures?
structures found inside of an organism
what are some examples or arthropoda (insecta)?
ant, grasshopper
what is the insecta symmetry of body plan?
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of insecta:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are insecta coelomate, pseudocoelomate, or acoelomate?
coelomate
describe the circulatory system of insecta:
open, containing hemolymph fluid
describe the nervous system of insecta:
fused ganglia with a ventral nerve cord
describe the respiratory system of insecta:
spiracles and tracheal tubes
insecta have _____ digestion, and some insects have _____ glands
one-way; salivary
what is a common feature of the excretory system of insecta?
malpighian tubules
are insects protostomes or deuterostomes?
protostome
a chitinous exoskeleton is a skeletal system found _____ arthropod bodies, and it is made of the _____ chitin
outside; polysaccharide
what are ganglia?
masses of nerve tissue, which can fuse to form 'mini brains'
arthropod _____ is equivalent to blood
hemolymph
malpighian tubules _____ the hemolymph of insects, and they help insects excrete _____ as nitrogenous waste
osmoregulate; uric acid
mammals excrete ___ as nitrogenous waste, while birds, reptiles, and invertebrates tend to excrete ___
urea; uric acid
_____ are small openings on exoskeletons, which allow air to enter
spiracles
_____ function like lungs in insects
tracheal tubes
what are some examples of arthropoda (arachnida)?
spider and scorpion
what is the symmetry of body plan of arachnida?
bilateral
what is the tissue organization of arachnida?
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are arachnida coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
coelomate
describe the circulatory system of arachnida:
open circulatory system containing hemolymph
describe the nervous system of arachnida:
fused ganglia with a ventral nerve cord
what are some prominent respiratory system features of arachnida?
trachea or book lungs
arachnida have _____ digestion, and some have _____ glands
one-way; salivary
what are some prominent features of arachind excretory systems?
malpighian tubules and/or coxal glands
are arachnida protostomes or deuterostomes?
protostome
_____ are respiratory structures in certain arthropods that resemble an open book
book lungs
_____ are the osmoregulatory and excretory structures of nitrogenous waste in arachnids
coxal glands / malpighian tubules
what are some examples of arthropoda (crustacea)?
lobster, crayfish, crab
crustaceans have a _____ symmetry
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of crustacea:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are crustacea coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
coelomate
describe the circulatory system of crustacea:
open circulatory system with hemolymph
describe the nervous system in crustacea:
fused ganglia, ventral nerve cord
what are some respiratory system structures in crustacea?
some have gills
crustacea have _____ digestion, and some have _____ glands
one-way; salivary
aquatic crustacea use _____ in their excretory system
green glands
terrestrial crustacea use _____ in their excretory system
malpighian tubules
are crustacea protostomes or deuterostomes?
protostome
green glands are found in _____, and they act as osmoregulatory and excretory structures for nitrogenous wastes
aquatic crustaceans
what are some examples of echinodermata?
starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
describe echinodermata symmetry:
bilateral (larvae), five fold radial (adult)
what is the tissue organization of echinodermata?
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are echinodermata coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
coelomate
describe the circulatory system of echinodermata:
open, no heart
what are some key features of echinodermata nervous systems?
nerve ring and radial nerves
describe the respiratory system of echinodermata:
none (diffusion)
echinodermata have a _____ digestive system, with a _____
complete; mouth and anus
describe the excretory system of echinodermata:
none (diffusion)
are echinodermata deuterostomes or protostomes?
deuterostomes
the _____ is the central portion of echinodermata where the arms radiate from, and it contains the mouth and anus
central disk
_____ have a blastopore that forms the anus
deuterostomes
describe the embryonic cleavage of a deuterostome:
radial and indeterminate
the cell's fate isn't set early on in _____ cleavages
indeterminate
_____ are like suction cups that echinoderms use to obtain food and "walk" on
tube feet
what are some examples of chordata?
vertebrates
chordata have _____ symmetry
bilateral
describe the tissue organization of chordata:
triploblasts, eumetazoa
are chordata deuterostomes or protostomes?
deuterostome
animal phyla other than echinoderms and chordates are (deuterostomes/protostomes)
protostomes
echinoderms and chordates are (deuterostomes/protostomes)
deuterostomes
chordata are animals that contain _____
notochords
notochords are _____ that support chordates in the embryonic stage
cartilaginous rods
most chordates lose their _____ during development
notochords
what is the notochord derived from?
the mesoderm
the _____ of chordates eventually goes on to form the basis of the nervous system, including the spinal cord and brain
dorsal hollow nerve cord
in mammals, what does the gill pouch eventually form?
the eustachian tubes in the ears and various other head and neck structures
lancelets (amphioxus) are _____ (phylum)
chordata
_____ are chordates that have a closed circulatory system, with contractile blood vessels but no heart
lancelets
what is a primary feature in the respiratory system of lancelets?
gills, which are also used for feeding and excretion
lancelets lack _____, and they keep the _____ through adulthood
vertebrae; notochord
tunicates (urochordata) are marine invertebrates that inhabit the benthic layers, and they are a member of the _____ phylum
chordata
_____ are regions at the very bottom of a body of water, and they may also include some portions of the floor
benthic layers
_____ can have both open and closed circulatory systems
tunicates

(tunicates with closed circulatory systems will have a fully developed heart and blood vessels)
what is a common feature in the respiratory system of tunicates?
gills
_____ is the process of exchanging substances (such as ions) or heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions
countercurrent exchange
_____ organisms bring forth live young, which have developed inside the body of the parent
viviparous
a _____ an unborn baby of viviparous organisms
fetus
a human embryo becomes a human fetus after _____ of development
8 weeks
_____ animals maintain a stable internal temperature in response to various external temperatures
homeothermic
_____ occurs when an animal's male gamete (sperm) penetrates another animal's female gamete (ovum)
internal fertilization

(must be same species)
_____ are milk producing glands of female mammals
mammary glands
the _____ is a vascular organ found in the uterus of a pregnant mother
placenta
the placenta provides nourishment to the fetus though a tube known as the _____
umbilical cord
_____ animals have internal temperatures that vary in response to the external environment
poikilothermic
_____ are jawless fish
agnatha
_____ are cartilaginous fish possessing jaws and teeth
chondrichthyes

(sharks)
_____ are the bony fishes
osteichthyes

(sturgeon, trout, tuna)
_____ utilize external fertilization, and they have larval stages in water but adult stages on land
amphibia

(frog, salamander, toad, newt)
_____ are cold-blooded, live on land, utilize internal fertilization, and lay leathery eggs
reptilia

(turtle, lizard, snake, crocodile)
_____ are warm-blooded animals that feed their offspring with milk produced from mammary glands
mammalia
_____ are egg laying mammals
monotremata

(platypus, spiny anteater)
_____ are mammals whose embryo completes development in the mother's pouch
marsupiala

(kangaroos, koalas, opossums)
_____ are mammals whose embryo develops fully in the uterus
placentalia