DAT Bootcamp - Diversity of Life
what is taxonomy?
the science of classifying organisms
list the broadest to most specific taxonomic ranks:
list the six kingdoms:
eubacteria and archaebacteria are _____ cells
_____ do not have membrane-bound nuclei (or organelles for the most part)
_____ have cell walls with peptidoglycan and esters
_____ have polysaccharide cell walls (not peptidoglycan like eubacteria) and ethers
_____ is a combination of carbohydrate and amino acids in bacterial cell walls
a _____ is a test to determine the amount of peptidoglycan
_____ bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan, and they appear dark purple
_____ bacteria have a with a thin peptidoglycan layer between two membranes, and they appear pink
the _____ makes gram negative bacteria visible during staining
the _____ is the gel located in the periplasmic space (predominantly in gram negative bacteria)
_____ is found (predominantly) between membranes of gram negative bacteria
(very small in gram positive bacteria)
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an _____ found in gram _____ bacteria only
LPS _____ is found in the _____ of gram negative cells, and it is only released when the bacteria is destroyed
endotoxin; outer membrane
an _____ is a toxin that both gram positive and gram negative bacteria secrete
endotoxins are only secreted by gram _____ bacteria
_____ are acidic polysaccharides that provide significant rigidity and structure only in gram _____ bacteria
teichoic acids; positive
a _____ covers both gram negative and gram positive bacterial cell walls
bacterial capsules are _____ because they decrease the capacity for bacteria to be phagocytosed by immune cells
in prokaryotes, the small ribosomal subunit is _____ and the large ribosomal subunit is _____ - these combine to form a _____ ribosome
30S; 50S; 70S
prokaryotic ribosomal subunits are made in the _____, and they are assembled into a 70S ribosome in the _____
eubacteria and archaea can contain extrachromosomal pieces of DNA called _____
plasmids are segments of _____ DNA that may pass _____ between cells
_____ have histone proteins and introns, but _____ lack both
archaea and bacteria both have _____ and _____ (structural features)
both archaea and bacteria undergo _____ to reproduce
binary fission (asexual reproduction)
binary fission is an _____ mechanism where cells simultaneously grow, replicate their genome, and divide into 2 genetically identical cells
protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia are _____ kingdoms
eukaryotes have membrane bound _____ and _____
some _____ have cell walls, whereas most _____ will have them
prokaryotes; non-mamalian eukaryotes
(mammals have an extracellular matrix with collagen fibrils instead of a cell wall)
prokaryotic cells are _____ (size) than eukaryotes
prokaryotes tend to have _____ chromosome(s) in their _____, while eukaryotes tend to have _____ chromosome(s) in their _____
a single, circular; nucleoid; multiple, linear; nucleus
plasmids are frequent in _____, but they only occur sometimes in _____
bacterial prokaryotes; eukaryotes
(plasmids occur sometimes in archaeal prokaryotes)
histone proteins are present in _____ and _____, but they are absent in _____
eukaryotes; archaeal prokaryotes; bacterial prokaryotes
DNA replication is _____ (speed) in prokaryotes, but it is _____ (speed) in eukaryotes
introns are present in _____ and _____, but they are absent in _____
eukaryotes; archaeal prokaryotes; bacterial prokaryotes
prokaryotes have _____ ribosomes, while eukaryotes have _____ ribosomes
70S (30S and 50S subunits); 80S (40S and 60S subunits)
prokaryotes are _____ (ploidy), while eukaryotes are _____ (ploidy)
(prokaryotes/eukaryotes) do not have telomeres, but (prokaryotes/eukaryotes) do
the electron transport chain (ETC) is located along the _____ of prokaryotes, and it is located along the _____ of eukaryotes
cell membrane; mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
transcription + translation occurs simultaneously for the same mRNA transcript in _____
transcription + translation does not occur simultaneously for the same mRNA transcript in _____
(transcription occurs first in the nucleus, then translation occurs when the mRNA moves to the cytoplasm)
prokaryotes have a (short/long) cell cycle, and they divide by _____
short; binary fission
eukaryotes have a (short/long) cell cycle, and they divide by _____
(mitosis for somatic cells and meiosis to make gametes)
_____ are usually unicellular organisms, which can be fungus like, animal like, or plant like
fungus-like protists (slime mold) do not have a cell wall made of _____, and they can move via _____
chitin; flagella or cilia
_____ organisms feed on decaying matter
how do fungus-like protists intake their food?
how do fungus-like protists reproduce?
asexual reproduction and sporulation
_____ protists are photosynthetic primary producers
dinoflagellates, diatoms, and euglenoids are unicellular, _____ protists that live in aquatic environments, reproduce asexually
_____ is an algal bloom created by dinoflagellates, which leads to a build up of toxins and depletion of oxygen in the water
amoeba and paramecium are _____ protists (protozoa)
amoeba and paramecium are protozoa (animal-like protists) that move via _____
_____ are protozoa (animal-like protists) that are heterotrophic and act as parasitic pathogens
amoeba and paramecium
fungi are heterotrophic _____, and they are (prokaryotic/eukaryotic)
_____ are unicellular, eukaryotic, non-filamentous fungi
yeast are _____ (metabolism), and they reproduce asexually, by _____
facultatively anaerobic; budding
_____ are multicellular, eukaryotic, filamentous fungi
molds form hyphae, and they are _____(metabolism)
_____ are long branching network with nearby fungi
a _____ is a whole group of hyphae
_____ hyphae are separated into sections
_____ hyphae are not separated into sections
fungi reproduce _____ when environmental conditions are good, and _____ when environmental conditions are bad
lichens are _____ containing fungi
fungi can be paired with _____ or _____ in a lichen
what are some of the most common features that animals share?
eukaryotic; diploid; multicellular; heterotrophic aerobes; usually motile; nervous and muscular systems
what are the 9 important phyla?
_____ is a cavity fully lined by mesoderm
_____ have no cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm
the coelom is only partially surrounded by mesodermal tissue in _____
which 3 of the 9 phyla are acoelomate (lack a coelom)?
platyhelminthes, cnidaria, porifera
what 1 of the 9 phyla are considered pseudocoelomate?
a _____ provides rigidity through fluid pressure
what are the 5 coelomate phyla?
annelids, mollusca, arthropoda, echinodermata, and chordata
amoebocytes can move by extending their cytoplasm (_____)
_____ is a form of asexual reproduction, where an outgrowth from an old organism produces a new organism
_____ have both male and female sexual structures, so they can produce both male and female gametes
_____ are organisms without true tissues
_____ organisms are fixed in one place
_____ organisms have endoderm and ectoderm (no mesoderm)
_____ are organisms that have true tissues
_____ are digestive systems with just 1 opening
_____ are motile cnidarians that reproduce sexually
_____ are cells that shoot poisonous barbs for protection and hunting
nerve nets are primitive central nervous systems found in organisms with _____ and _____ symmetry
_____ symmetry refers to symmetry around the central axis
what are some examples of platyhelminths?
flatworms, trematoda, flukes, tapeworm, planaria
platyhelminths have _____ symmetry and cephalization (a head)
how are tissues organized in platyhelminths?
describe the circulatory system of platyhelminths:
describe the nervous system of platyhelminths:
two nerve cords with an anterior centralized ganglia (brain)
describe the respiratory system of platyhelminths:
describe the digestive system of platyhelminths:
gastrovascular cavity with 2 way digestion
describe the embryonic development of platyhelminths:
_____ symmetry is characterized by right and left halves creating a midline (sagittal plane)
_____ refers to organisms with a head
flame cells are involved with _____ and _____
_____ is the process of moving water across a semipermeable membrane
what are nerve cords?
dense nerve clusters that run the length of an invertebrates body
what are protonephridia?
bundles of flame cells, which function similarly to a kidney
_____ organisms have 3 germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm (from inner to outer)
nematoda have _____ symmetry
describe the tissue organization of nematoda:
_____ are pseudocoelomate, and their psuedocoelom acts as a hydrostatic skeleton
describe the circulatory system of nematoda:
describe the nervous system of nematoda:
nerve cord and ring
describe the respiratory system of nematoda:
describe the digestive system of nematoda:
alimentary canal, one way
describe the excretory system of nematoda:
what is the embryonic development of nematoda?
_____ are the entire passage between an organism's mouth and anus
what are nerve rings?
rings of nerve tissue surrounding the esophagus
rotifers are a similar phyla to _____
rotifera have a _____ symmetry
what is the rotifera tissue organization?
rotifera are _____, similar to nematoda
describe the rotifera circulatory system:
what does the rotifera nervous system look like?
cerebral ganglia (brain) with some nerves extending through the body
describe the rotifera respiratory system:
describe the rotifera digestive system:
alimentary canal with a mouth and anus
rotifera have an excretory system with _____ and _____
protonephridia; flame cells
_____ cilia help organisms to move substances around
_____ cilia act as cellular antenna for receiving signals
do flame cells have cilia?
yes, the aid in the filtering process
_____ is asexual reproduction where an unfertilized egg cell turns into an offspring
_____ parthenogenesis means that the egg only retains half of the mother's DNA as it regains diploidy
_____ parthenogenesis means that the egg that retains all of the mother's DNA as it regains diploidy
what are some examples of annelida?
annelida have _____ symmetry
describe the tissue organization of annelida:
are annelida coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
describe the annelida circulatory system:
closed circulatory system, with multiple pairs of aortic arches and distinct arteries and veins
describe the annelida nervous system:
ventral nerve cord, anterior ganglia (brain)
describe the annelida respiratory system:
describe the annelida digestive system:
alimentary canal with a mouth and anus
most annelida have _____ for their excretory system
are annelida protostomes or deuterostomes?
the _____ is the primitive gut formed during gastrulation
the _____ opens into the archenteron, and it has the potential of developing into the mouth or the anus during gastrulation
blood is pumped through vessels by a heart in _____
closed circulatory systems
describe determinate cleavage:
the fate of the cell is set early on
metanephridia are involved in _____, and they contain tubes with cilia that move fluid into the _____
invertebrate osmoregulation; coelom
protostomes are a group of animals where the blastopore forms the _____
describe the embryonic cleavage of protostomes:
spiral and determinate
what are some examples of mollusca?
clam, snail, slug, squid, octopus, cephalopod, gastropod
mollusca have _____ symmetry
describe the tissue organization of mollusca:
are mollusca coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
describe the mollusca circulatory system:
mainly open, containing a hemocoel
describe the mollusca nervous system
ventral nerve cords and brain
what is a prominent feature of the mollusca respiratory system?
_____ have a complete digestive system, with a mouth, anus, and radula
what is a prominent feature of the mollusca excretory system?
are mollusca protostomes or deuterostomes?
_____ digestive systems have basic alimentary canals with accessory digestive structures
the _____ secretes calcium carbonate, which is used to build mollusca shells
what are nephridia?
pairs of osmoregulatory 'kidneys' found in an invertebrate
what are 2 specific types of nephridia?
metanephridia and protonephridia
_____ are unique to mollusca, and they look like tongues covered in tiny teeth
what are visceral structures?
structures found inside of an organism
what are some examples or arthropoda (insecta)?
what is the insecta symmetry of body plan?
describe the tissue organization of insecta:
are insecta coelomate, pseudocoelomate, or acoelomate?
describe the circulatory system of insecta:
open, containing hemolymph fluid
describe the nervous system of insecta:
fused ganglia with a ventral nerve cord
describe the respiratory system of insecta:
spiracles and tracheal tubes
insecta have _____ digestion, and some insects have _____ glands
what is a common feature of the excretory system of insecta?
are insects protostomes or deuterostomes?
a chitinous exoskeleton is a skeletal system found _____ arthropod bodies, and it is made of the _____ chitin
what are ganglia?
masses of nerve tissue, which can fuse to form 'mini brains'
arthropod _____ is equivalent to blood
malpighian tubules _____ the hemolymph of insects, and they help insects excrete _____ as nitrogenous waste
osmoregulate; uric acid
mammals excrete ___ as nitrogenous waste, while birds, reptiles, and invertebrates tend to excrete ___
urea; uric acid
_____ are small openings on exoskeletons, which allow air to enter
_____ function like lungs in insects
what are some examples of arthropoda (arachnida)?
spider and scorpion
what is the symmetry of body plan of arachnida?
what is the tissue organization of arachnida?
are arachnida coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
describe the circulatory system of arachnida:
open circulatory system containing hemolymph
describe the nervous system of arachnida:
fused ganglia with a ventral nerve cord
what are some prominent respiratory system features of arachnida?
trachea or book lungs
arachnida have _____ digestion, and some have _____ glands
what are some prominent features of arachind excretory systems?
malpighian tubules and/or coxal glands
are arachnida protostomes or deuterostomes?
_____ are respiratory structures in certain arthropods that resemble an open book
_____ are the osmoregulatory and excretory structures of nitrogenous waste in arachnids
coxal glands / malpighian tubules
what are some examples of arthropoda (crustacea)?
lobster, crayfish, crab
crustaceans have a _____ symmetry
describe the tissue organization of crustacea:
are crustacea coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
describe the circulatory system of crustacea:
open circulatory system with hemolymph
describe the nervous system in crustacea:
fused ganglia, ventral nerve cord
what are some respiratory system structures in crustacea?
some have gills
crustacea have _____ digestion, and some have _____ glands
aquatic crustacea use _____ in their excretory system
terrestrial crustacea use _____ in their excretory system
are crustacea protostomes or deuterostomes?
green glands are found in _____, and they act as osmoregulatory and excretory structures for nitrogenous wastes
what are some examples of echinodermata?
starfish, sea urchin, sea cucumber
describe echinodermata symmetry:
bilateral (larvae), five fold radial (adult)
what is the tissue organization of echinodermata?
are echinodermata coelomate, acoelomate, or pseudocoelomate?
describe the circulatory system of echinodermata:
open, no heart
what are some key features of echinodermata nervous systems?
nerve ring and radial nerves
describe the respiratory system of echinodermata:
echinodermata have a _____ digestive system, with a _____
complete; mouth and anus
describe the excretory system of echinodermata:
are echinodermata deuterostomes or protostomes?
the _____ is the central portion of echinodermata where the arms radiate from, and it contains the mouth and anus
_____ have a blastopore that forms the anus
describe the embryonic cleavage of a deuterostome:
radial and indeterminate
the cell's fate isn't set early on in _____ cleavages
_____ are like suction cups that echinoderms use to obtain food and "walk" on
what are some examples of chordata?
chordata have _____ symmetry
describe the tissue organization of chordata:
are chordata deuterostomes or protostomes?
animal phyla other than echinoderms and chordates are (deuterostomes/protostomes)
echinoderms and chordates are (deuterostomes/protostomes)
chordata are animals that contain _____
notochords are _____ that support chordates in the embryonic stage
most chordates lose their _____ during development
what is the notochord derived from?
the _____ of chordates eventually goes on to form the basis of the nervous system, including the spinal cord and brain
dorsal hollow nerve cord
in mammals, what does the gill pouch eventually form?
the eustachian tubes in the ears and various other head and neck structures
lancelets (amphioxus) are _____ (phylum)
_____ are chordates that have a closed circulatory system, with contractile blood vessels but no heart
what is a primary feature in the respiratory system of lancelets?
gills, which are also used for feeding and excretion
lancelets lack _____, and they keep the _____ through adulthood
tunicates (urochordata) are marine invertebrates that inhabit the benthic layers, and they are a member of the _____ phylum
_____ are regions at the very bottom of a body of water, and they may also include some portions of the floor
_____ can have both open and closed circulatory systems
(tunicates with closed circulatory systems will have a fully developed heart and blood vessels)
what is a common feature in the respiratory system of tunicates?
_____ is the process of exchanging substances (such as ions) or heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions
_____ organisms bring forth live young, which have developed inside the body of the parent
a _____ an unborn baby of viviparous organisms
a human embryo becomes a human fetus after _____ of development
_____ animals maintain a stable internal temperature in response to various external temperatures
_____ occurs when an animal's male gamete (sperm) penetrates another animal's female gamete (ovum)
(must be same species)
_____ are milk producing glands of female mammals
the _____ is a vascular organ found in the uterus of a pregnant mother
the placenta provides nourishment to the fetus though a tube known as the _____
_____ animals have internal temperatures that vary in response to the external environment
_____ are jawless fish
_____ are cartilaginous fish possessing jaws and teeth
_____ are the bony fishes
(sturgeon, trout, tuna)
_____ utilize external fertilization, and they have larval stages in water but adult stages on land
(frog, salamander, toad, newt)
_____ are cold-blooded, live on land, utilize internal fertilization, and lay leathery eggs
(turtle, lizard, snake, crocodile)
_____ are warm-blooded animals that feed their offspring with milk produced from mammary glands
_____ are egg laying mammals
(platypus, spiny anteater)
_____ are mammals whose embryo completes development in the mother's pouch
(kangaroos, koalas, opossums)
_____ are mammals whose embryo develops fully in the uterus