190 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Circulatory System

what is a circulatory system?
how organisms deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues
what is simple diffusion?
passive movement of dissolved substances due to concentration gradient
list the organisms that do not have circulatory systems:
- kingdom archaea
- kingdom eubacteria
- kingdom protista
- kingdom fungi
- kingdom animalia
1) porifera
2) cnidaria
3) platyhelminthes
4) nematoda
5) rotifera
how is hemolymph pumped in an insects body?
tubular hearts pump fluid through a single dorsal vessel --> sinuses --> hemocoel
how does hemolymph re-enter a relaxed insect heart?
_____ allow air to pass into the tracheal system of insects
list the invertebrate animals with an open circulatory system:
kingdom animalia
1) mollusca
2) arthropoda
3) echinodermata
_____ is fluid that allows gas exchange in closed circulatory systems
list the invertebrates with a closed circulatory system:
annelida (segmented worms)
what are the primary/true heart chambers?
atria and ventricles
2 chambered hearts have 2 primary chambers - what are they?
1 atrium; 1 ventricle
2 chambered hearts only pump _____ blood
2 chambered hearts are _____ circulation hearts
what is a common example of an organism that has a 2 chambered heart?
ventricles are (stronger/weaker) than atria
3 chambered hearts have 3 primary chambers - what are they?
right and left atrium; single ventricle
3 chambered hearts mix deoxygenated and oxygenated blood in the _____
3 chambered hearts are _____ circulation hearts
what types of animals have 3 chambered hearts?
poikilothermic amphibians and reptiles
4 chambered hearts have 4 primary chambers - what are they?
left and right atrium; left and right ventricle
4 chambered hearts pump both deoxygenated and oxygenated blood without _____
4 chambered hearts are _____ circulation hearts
what type of animals have 4 chambered hearts?
birds and humans (homeothermic)
the right atrium accepts _____ blood from vena cava
blood pump from the right atrium to the _____, through the _____
right ventricle; tricuspid valve
what is the atrioventricular valve with 3 cusps?
tricuspid valve
what are the largest veins?
vena cava

(connect to the right atrium)
what returns deoxygenated blood from above the heart?
superior vena cava
what returns deoxygenated blood from below the heart?
inferior vena cava
what prevents back-flow from the ventricles to the atria?
atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
AV valves close when what contracts?
papillary muscles
what are the stringy tendons that attach papillary muscles to AV valves?
chordae tendineae
the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood --> pulmonary arteries through what valve?
pulmonary semilunar valve
semilunar valves have _____ cusps
_____ valves ensure one-way flow of blood from ventricles to arteries
the _____ take deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs for gas exchange
pulmonary arteries
what are the vessels moving away from the heart?
_____ return oxygenated blood to the left atrium after gas exchange at the lungs
pulmonary veins
what are the vessels that carry blood toward the heart?
oxygenated blood flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle, through the _____
bicuspid/mitral valve
the bicuspid/mitral (AV) valve has _____ to ensure unidirectional blood flow from the left atrium to left ventricle
2 cusps/flaps
the _____ is the most muscular chamber of the heart
left ventricle
the left ventricle forcefully ejects oxygenated blood through the _____ valve --> _____
aortic semilunar; aorta
the _____ is the largest artery
the aorta leaves from the
left ventricle
the aorta has the highest _____ of any vessel
blood pressure
what are the 2 circulations of the human cardiac system?
pulmonary; systemic
_____ circulation moves deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation
_____ circulation moves oxygenated blood to the body tissues
does systemic or pulmonary circulation have a higher resistance to blood flow?
how does the heart pump blood to itself?
coronary circulation
what is the muscular layer of the heart
what are the cells contained in the myocardium?
what type of cells line the inside of the heart?
is made up of _____ cells
the _____ lies beneath the myocardium
_____ drain deoxygenated blood from the myocardium to the right atrium via the coronary sinus
cardiac veins
what is the small opening in the right atrium that cardiac veins empty into?
coronary sinus
the _____ is a protective sack of fluid surrounding the heart
what is the fluid in the pericardium?
serous pericardium
cardiomyocytes have automaticity - what does that mean?
action potentials will generate without external nerves having to initiate the action potential
the _____ is the pacemaker of the heart
sinoatrial node (SA node)
the SA node has the greatest _____ in the heart
where is the SA node located?
right atrium
even though the heart can function completely independently, beating pace is influenced by _____ (faster) & _____ (slower)
sympathetic, parasympathetic
the _____ extends from the medulla oblongata and innervates the SA node
parasympathetic vagus nerve
the parasympathetic vagus nerve sends a default signal to _____ the SA node automaticity to _____
slow; 60-90 BPM
what is a tachycardic heart rate?
> 100 BPM
what is a bradycardic heart rate?
< 60 BPM
what is the function of the AV node?
add a brief delay between atrial and ventricular contractions
where does the AV node conduct to?
bundle of His
where is the bundle of His located?
inter-ventricular septum
what does the bundle of His do?
carries the signal to the base of the heart
purkinje fibers are located in the walls of the _____
_____ receive conduction from the bundle of His
purkinje fibers
what is the name for the period of time right after the ventricles eject their blood?
systole is the phase where blood pressure is _____
the highest
what is the period of time right after the atria contract to fill the ventricles?
the myocardium is _____ during diastole
diastole is the phase where blood pressure is the _____
atria are relaxed during the _____ heart sound
_____ are contracting during the "lub" heart sound
_____ are contracting during the "dub" heart sound
ventricles are relaxed during the _____ heart sound
when does systole occur (sounds)?
between lub and dub
when does diastole occur (sounds)?
after dub (before next lub)
which side of the heart is stronger - left or right?
why is the left side of the heart stronger than the right side?
systemic circulation and greater vascular resistance
_____ are contact points between adjacent cardiomyocytes
intercalated discs
_____ 'stitch' cardiomyocytes together at intercalated disks
_____ are protein tunnels that connect adjacent cardiomyocytes
gap junctions
gap junctions are involved with _____ transport
_____ allows the heart to function in unity
cardiac syncytium
what is the wave that represents both atria depolarizing?
p wave
what is the wave that depicts depolarization through the interventricular septum
q wave
the q wave initiates _____
ventricular depolarization
what is the wave that represents depolarization through both ventricles?
r wave
what is the wave that represents completion of ventricular depolarization
s wave
the _____ shows the entirety of ventricular depolarization
qrs complex
what is the wave that represents ventricular re-polarization?
t wave
what are refractory cells?
cells that are too hyper-polarized for another action potential to occur
what is heart rate (HR)?
is how fast or slow the heart beats
_____ is the volume of blood pumped from the heart with each beat
stroke volume (SV)
true or false - the left and right ventricle pump equal amounts of blood
what is end-systolic volume (ESV)?
the amount of blood in ventricles after contraction
what is end-diastolic volume (EDV)?
the amount of blood in ventricles before contraction
how do you calculate stroke volume (SV)?
subtract ESV from EDV
what is cardiac output (CO)?
volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute
how do we calculate cardiac output?
CO = HR x SV
what is total peripheral resistance (TPR)?
vascular resistance to blood flow
how does vasoconstriction change TPR?
increases it
how does vasodilation change TPR?
decreases it
_____ is the highest arterial pressure that occurs during systole
systolic blood pressure (DBP)
_____ is the lowest arterial pressure that occurs during diastole
diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
_____ is the average arterial pressure during one complete cardiac cycle
mean arterial pressure (MAP)
mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a better indicator of cardiovascular health than _____
equation for mean arterial pressure (MAP)
_____ is the technique where a stethoscope and sphygmomanometer are used to measure SBP and DBP
what do blood vessels do?
transport blood to and from the heart in a closed circulatory system
how many layers are there in blood vessels?
what are the 3 blood vessel layers (arteries and veins) - from superficial to most deep
tunica externa; tunica media; tunica intima
the tunica _____ is the innermost vessel layer
the tunica intima is made of _____ cells
the tunica _____ reduces friction to blood flow
the _____ lies between the tunica intima and tunica externa
tunica media
the tunica media contains _____ for vasoconstriction/vasodilation
smooth muscle
the tunica externa is the _____ vessel layer
the tunica externa contains _____ & _____ proteins, as well as _____ fibers
collagen; elastin; nerve
what are the most elastic vessels
arteries and arterioles
arteries and arterioles hold _____ blood than other vessels
which vessels have the greatest drop in blood pressure?
arterioles (resistance vessels)
where does the elasticity of arteries and artioles come from?
thick smooth muscle in the tunica media; high amount of elastin in tunica externa
what is the main role of arteries and arterioles
carry blood away from the heart

(usually oxygenated blood to body tissues)
which arteries carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart?
pulmonary and umbilical arteries
vasoconstriction and vasodilation occurs in response to..?
hormones and thermoregulation
_____ are the smallest diameter vessels, which are found between arteries and veins
how thick are capillary walls?
one endothelial cell thick (tunica intima only)
what are fenestra in capillaries?
pores for diffusion
capillaries bring _____ & _____ to body tissues
nutrients; oxygen
capillaries remove wastes like _____ & _____ from body tissues
CO2; urea
why is plasma forced out of the arterial end of a capillary?
hydrostatic pressure is high
why is plasma taken-up at the arterial end of a capillary?
osmotic/colloid pressure is high
_____ connect capillaries to the veins
veins are _____ than arteries, which allows them to hold more _____
wider; blood
do venules and veins contain smooth muscle?
yes, but not as much as arteries or arterioles
why are veins sometimes referred to as capacitance vessels?
most of the body's blood is found in veins
BP is lowest in the _____ (vessels)
why do veins contain valves?
ensure blood is flowing toward the heart
what pumps do veins use to make sure blood reaches the heart?
skeletal muscle pump and the respiratory pump
in the _____, working muscles squeeze veins to move blood forward
skeletal muscle pump
in the _____, pressure changes during breathing squeeze veins to move blood toward the heart
respiratory pump (abdominothoracic pump)
what are portal systems?
capillary bed connected to another capillary bed by a portal vein
describe the benefit of the hypophyseal portal system:
hormones quickly travel directly from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
the blood clotting cascade is a _____ feedback mechanism
describe the blood clotting cascade in general terms
damaged tissue attracts platelets, which attract more platelets until a clot is achieved
_____ is an important element in the manufacture of many clotting factors, including prothrombin
vitamin K
how are forms of vitamin K modified and produced?
symbiotic bacteria in the large intestine
blood is found in animals with _____ circulatory systems
what are the 3 general components of blood
plasma; small portion of leukocytes (WBCs) and platelets; and erythrocytes (RBCs)
what are the components of plasma?
water; proteins; nutrients; hormones
_____ (thrombocytes) are cell fragments that do not contain a nucleus
cells that do not contain a nucleus are _____
megakaryocytes are large _____ cells
bone marrow
_____ are a precursor to platelets, which are involved in the clotting cascade
erythrocytes (RBCs) contain millions of _____, which can hold up to _____ O2 each
hemoglobin; 4
erythrocytes are _____ (no nucleus)
erythrocytes contain _____ on their surface
what are antigens?
little sugars and proteins that mark our blood cells as a certain type
what antigens are present on erythrocytes for each of the 4 blood groups?
type A - A antigen

type B - B antigen

type AB - both A and B antigens

type O - no A or B antigen
what do antibodies do?
allow our immune system to find foreign antigens
what does the rhesus factor (Rh) do?
gives +/- blood types

+ if Rh antigens are present

- if no Rh antigens
if a donor is Rh +, they cannot donate to someone who....
is Rh -
eight blood types
A+ and A-
B+ and B-
AB+ and AB-
O+ and O-
what blood type is the universal donor?

no RBC surface antigens
what blood type is the universal acceptor?

has all RBC surface antigens
the _____ is a highly vascularized organ in the uterus
the placenta provides oxygen and nutrients to the fetus through the
umbilical cord
the _____ carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
umbilical vein
the _____ allows some oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein to flow into the inferior vena cava
ductus venosus
does the maternal and fetal blood mix across the placenta?
no, the embryonic chorion protects against blood mixing
erythroblastosis fetalis
Rh- mother gives birth to a Rh+ baby

blood mixing causes mother to develop antibodies against Rh antigens (Rh+ blood)

if Rh- mother gets pregnant with another Rh+ baby, anti-Rh antibodies cross the embryonic chorion and cause hemolysis in the Rh+ baby

baby is born as an anemic
_____ are leaky vessels that take-up fluid that was not re-absorbed by the capillary bed
lymphatic capillaries
what is the fluid in the lymphatic system called?
what does lymph contain?
interstitial fluid, bacteria, fats, and proteins
what are the lymphatic capillaries that absorb fats in the villi of the small intestine?
_____ are small finger like projections that increase the surface area in the small intestine
_____ contain immune cells that inspect the lymph
lymph nodes
lymphatic veins are not connected to the _____
lymphatic veins connect to _____ of the circulatory system, which then connect to the heart
does the lymphatic system have a central pump?
no; it is a low pressure system and uses the skeletal muscle pump (like veins)