142 terms

DAT Bootcamp - Respiratory System

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_____ is the gas exchange between the external environment and the inside of an organism
respiration
what is cellular respiration?
metabolic processes to make ATP
the _____ system allows respiration to occur
respiratory
what are stomata?
pores for gas exchange/respiration in plant leaves
_____ are pores for respiration in woody stems
lenticels
cnidaria use _____ of gases
simple diffusion
_____ is where molecules travel across a selectively permeable membrane by concentration gradients
simple diffusion
animals that use simple diffusion have a _____ surface area and almost all cells are in contact with a _____ environment
large, moist
annelida use _____ as their means of gas exchange
simple diffusion
how do earthworms keep their skin moist for simple diffusion?
they secrete and coat themselves in a mucus
arthropoda have _____ to transport a small amount of gasses
hemolymph
what are the special structures insects use for respiration?
spiracles, which lead to tracheal tubes
arachnids have a _____, which leads into their book lungs
spiracle
what is the special structure arachnids use for respiration?
book lungs
what special structure do fish use to respire?
gills
gills have a large surface area for the _____ exchange of gases between the blood and water
countercurrent
_____ is the gas exchange mechanism where fluids flow in different directions for increased diffusion
countercurrent exchange
_____ is the gas exchange mechanism where fluids move in the same direction, which is not as good for diffusion
concurrent flow
_____ creates a stronger diffusion gradient than cocurrent exchange
countercurrent exchange
an _____ is the opening in the skin covering fish gills
operculum
lungs function based on _____ and _____ manipulations
pressure; volume
where are lungs found?
thoracic cavity; surrounded by the rib cage
which lung is larger - why?
right; the left lung needs to make room for the heart
how many lobes does the right lung have?
3
how many lobes does the left lung have?
2
why is the left lung smaller than the right lung?
it needs to make room for the heart
the _____ is a dual layered membrane that covers each lung
pleura
the _____ is the outer layer of the pleura, which contacts the thoracic cavity
parietal layer
the _____ is the inner layer of the pleura, which makes contact with the lungs
visceral layer
what is the space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura?
pleural space

(intrapleural space)
the pleural space contains a fluid that is always at a _____ than atmospheric pressure
lower pressure

(known as intrapleural negative pressure)
the intrapleural negative pressure prevents the lungs from _____
collapsing
increasing the volume of the _____ is responsible for moving air into the lungs
thoracic cavity
the _____ is a large skeletal muscle at the bottom of the lungs
diaphragm
the diaphragm is innervated by the _____ nerve
phrenic
the diaphragm pulls the lungs downward when it _____ during inhalation/inspiration
contracts
the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract during _____
inhalation/inspiration
the volume _____ during inhalation/inspiration
increases
pressure _____ during inhalation/inspiration
decreases
volume and pressure are _____ related
inversely
_____ decreases the surface tension in the lungs
pulmonary surfactant
the _____ and _____ muscles relax during exhalation/expiration
diaphragm; external intercostal
volume decreases during _____
exhalation/expiration
_____ increases during exhalation/inspiration
pressure
which intercostal muscles contract to help with exhalation/expiration?
internal intercostals

(external intercostals contract during inhalation/inspiration)
at the beginning of inspiration, the intrapleural pressure begins to _____
decline
intrapleural pressure is most negative at peak _____
inspiration
at the beginning of exhalation, the intrapleural pressure begins to _____
rise

(become less negative)
the intrapleural pressure of the lungs is the least negative at peak _____
expiration
what is tidal volume?
normal breathing
more forceful inhalations allow more air to be inspired than usual (above tidal volume) - what is this volume known as?
inspiratory reserve volume
what is the volume of air left in the lungs after a normal tidal exhalation?
functional residual capacity
more forceful exhalations allow more air to be expired than usual (below tidal volume) - what is this volume known as?
expiratory reserve volume
what is the maximum volume of air that could be expired after maximum inhalation?
vital capacity
what is the volume the lungs could theoretically hold?
lung capacity
what is the first respiratory structure air contacts when air is inspired?
the nasal cavity
what is the function of the nasal cavity?
warm and moisten incoming air
_____ cells and ciliated _____ cells are found in the nasal cavity
goblet, epithelial
what are the columnar cells that secrete mucus to trap debris from inspired air?
goblet cells
which cells move the debris that gets trapped in goblet cell mucus?
ciliated epithelial cells
the _____ is found after the nasal cavity, and it marks the beginning of the throat
pharynx
what does the pharynx divide into?
the larynx and esophagus
the _____ is the structure in the throat that diverts food/air into their appropriate tubes
epiglottis
the epiglottis prevents food from entering the _____ by covering it during swallowing to divert food/fluid into the _____
larynx; esophagus
the larynx is known as the voice box because it contains the _____
vocal cords
after the larynx continues onto the upper _____
trachea
what are the components of upper respiratory tract?
nasal cavity; oral cavity; pharynx; larynx; the upper trachea
the trachea is reinforced by C-shaped _____ to prevent collapse
cartilage
the trachea is covered in _____ cells that filter the air
ciliated epithelial
the trachea splits into the _____
bronchi
bronchi continue to the _____ --> _____
bronchioles; alveoli
what are the 2 types of epithelial cells in human alveoli?
type 1; type 2
type 1 alveolar epithelial cells are responsible for _____ of the alveoli
structural support
type 2 alveolar epithelial cells are responsible for _____ into the alveoli
surfactant secretion
what does the surfactant produced by type 2 alveolar epithelial cells do?
it prevents alveoli from collapsing
what are the components of lower respiratory tract?
trachea; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
what is the pathway of air in the human respiratory system?
nasal cavity/oral cavity --> pharynx --> larynx --> trachea --> bronchi --> bronchioles --> alveoli
air travels from the nose to the lung alveoli for gas exchange in _____ respiration
external respiration
gas exchange occurs between the blood and body tissues in _____ respiration
internal
gas exchange occurs due to differences in _____
partial pressure
_____ refers to the pressure exerted by 1 gas in a mixture of gases
partial pressure
_____ of gases does not require energy because molecules move down their concentration gradient
simple diffusion
air entering the alveolus has a _____ partial pressure of O2 and a _____ partial pressure of CO2
high; low
blood arriving at alveolar capillaries has a _____ partial pressure of O2 and a _____ partial pressure of CO2
low; high
erythrocytes (RBCs) house millions of _____, which carry oxygen
tetrameric hemoglobin polypeptides
a _____ is a non-protein chemical that assists with a biological chemical reaction
cofactor
_____ are organic cofactors that assist hemoglobin binding to oxygen
heme groups
what are the components of heme cofactors?
porphyrin rings with a central ferrous iron atom (Fe2+)
heme iron is also known as _____ iron
ferrous (Fe2+)
heme iron oxidized to ____ can't bind oxygen
ferric iron (Fe3+)
heme from broken down hemoglobin forms _____, which is a component of bilirubin
bile
~ 98% of O2 is transported through the blood as _____
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
~ 2% of O2 is transported through the blood as _____
O2 dissolved in plasma
_____ has a 200x greater affinity for hemoglobin than O2
carbon monoxide (CO)
carbon monoxide (CO) makes _____ (HbCO), which suffocates cells
carboxyhemoglobin
what is it called when hemoglobin is bound to CO2?
carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2)
how does most carbon dioxide travel in the blood?
as bicarbonate anion (HCO3-)
what is the term that describes how binding/unbinding of 1 molecule makes binding/unbinding of another even easier?
cooperativity
the _____ described the % of hemoglobin that is saturated with O2 under various conditions
oxygen dissociation curve
hemoglobin binds more tightly to O2 in a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve, which means it is harder to release O2 to the tissues
left
hemoglobin binds more loosely to O2 in a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve, which means it is easier to release O2 to the tissues
right
when is a right-shifted curve important?
anemia; high altitudes; vigorous exercise
describe what it means to be anemic:
low levels heme iron (ferrous - Fe2+)
high partial pressures of carbon dioxide create _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curves
right

(lower hemoglobin affinity for O2 - easier to release O2 to the tissues)
how do high partial pressures of CO2 create a right-shifted oxygen dissociation curve?
decreases the pH (increases the H+) concentration due to the bicarbonate buffering system, which leads to reduced hemoglobin (H+Hb)
decreased pH (increased H+ conc.) creates _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curves by reducing hemoglobin to H+Hb
right

(lower hemoglobin affinity for O2 - easier to release O2 to the tissues)
low partial pressures of carbon dioxide create _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curves
left

(higher hemoglobin affinity for O2 - hemoglobin wants to hold onto O2 more tightly)
reduced hemoglobin (H+Hb) creates _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curves
right

(lower hemoglobin affinity for O2 - easier to release O2 to the tissues)
decreased partial pressures of carbon dioxide lead to left shifted curves because it leads to fewer available _____ by the bicarbonate buffering system
H+ (lower H+ conc. --> increased pH)
increased pH (decreased H+ conc.) creates _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curves
left

(higher hemoglobin affinity for O2 - hemoglobin wants to hold onto O2 more tightly)
why does an increased pH (decreased H+ conc.) left-shift the oxygen dissociation curve?
not as many H+ are available to displace oxygen from hemoglobin - aka to reduce hemoglobin to H+Hb
increased temperature will result in a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve
right

(higher temperature increases the metabolic rate - aka increases the cellular requirement for oxygen)
increased temperature --> increased metabolic rate --> increased _____ (metabolic byproduct), which leads to a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve
2,3-BPG; right
decreased temperature will result in a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve
left

(lower temperature decreases the metabolic rate - aka decreases the cellular requirement for oxygen)
decreased temperature --> decreased metabolic rate --> decreased _____ (metabolic byproduct), which leads to a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve
2,3-BPG; left
fetal hemoglobin shows a _____ shifted oxygen dissociation curve to ensure O2 can be acquired from maternal blood
left

(higher hemoglobin affinity for O2 - hemoglobin wants to hold onto O2 more tightly)
where is myoglobin found?
cytosol of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells
where does myoglobin obtain O2?
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
myoglobin is a _____ peptide with _____ heme cofactor
single; 1
why does myoglobin saturate with O2 more quickly than hemoglobin?
it is a single peptide with 1 heme cofactor, so it does not experience cooperativity
the oxygen dissociation curve for myoglobin is _____
hyperbolic
the oxygen dissociation curve for hemoglobin is _____
sigmoidal
the _____ effect states hemoglobin has decreased affinity for O2 when CO2 is high
Bohr
the _____ effect says that the the deoxygenation of blood increases its ability to carry CO2
Haldane
gasses always travel down their _____ gradient
pressure
how does gas exchange occur at the level of the tissues?
CO2 leaves tissues and enters the RBC; O2 leaves the RBC and enters tissues
the _____ maintains a pH between 7.2 at the tissues and 7.6 at the lungs
bicarbonate buffering system
_____ combines CO2 + H2O to form H2CO3
carbonic anhydrase
H2CO3 dissociates into _____ and H+
HCO3- (bicarbonate)
_____ can leave a red blood cell, but _____ cannot
HCO3- (bicarbonate anion); H+
Cl- must diffuse into RBCs to replace HCO3- that leaves to enter the blood plasma - this is known as the
chloride shift
the chloride shift occurs at the _____, while the reverse chloride shift occurs at the _____
tissues; lungs
the _____ controls respiration by telling the diaphragm when to contract via signals through the phrenic nerve
medulla oblongata
the medulla oblongata contains _____ chemoreceptors, which are protected by the _____
central; blood brain barrier
what is the function of central chemoreceptors?
detect the concentration of CO2 and pH in the cerebrospinal fluid
where are peripheral chemoreceptors found?
in bodies surrounding the aortic arch and carotid arteries
what is the function of peripheral chemoreceptors?
detect changes in the concentration of O2, CO2, and H+ in arterial blood
CO2 and H+ levels are _____ when arterial O2 is _____
high; low
hypoventilation causes CO2 to accumulate, which decreases the pH (bicarbonate buffering system) - what is this known as?
respiratory acidosis
what is the response to respiratory acidosis?
hyperventilation
hyperventilation causes CO2 to deplete, which increases the pH (bicarbonate buffering system) - what is this known as?
respiratory alkalosis
what is the response to respiratory alkalosis?
hypoventilation
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